Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality

Pubmed Data : Int J Epidemiol. 2015 Jun ;44(3):1038-49. Epub 2015 Jun 11. PMID: 26066329
Study Type : Human Study, Meta Analysis

Abstract

Background: Nut intake has been associated with lower mortality, but few studies have investigated causes of death other than cardiovascular disease, and dose-response relationships remain unclear.

Methods: We investigated the relationship of nut (tree nut, peanut) and peanut butter intake with overall and cause-specific mortality. In the Netherlands Cohort Study, 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years provided information on dietary and lifestyle habits in 1986. Mortality follow-up until 1996 consisted of linkage to Statistics Netherlands. Multivariate case-cohort analyses were based on 8823 deaths and 3202 subcohort members with complete data on nuts and potential confounders. We also conducted meta-analyses of our results with those published from other cohort studies.

Results: Total nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality (cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, neurodegenerative diseases, other causes) in men and women. When comparing those consuming 0.1-<5, 5-<10 and 10+ g nuts/day with non-consumers, multivariable hazard ratios for total mortality were 0.88, 0.74 and 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.66-0.89], respectively (Ptrend = 0.003). Cause-specific hazard ratios comparing 10+ vs 0 g/day varied from 0.56 for neurodegenerative to 0.83 for cardiovascular disease mortality. Restricted cubic splines showed nonlinear dose-response relationships with mortality. Peanuts and tree nuts were inversely related to mortality, whereas peanut butter was not. In meta-analyses, summary hazard ratios for highest vs lowest nut consumption were 0.85 for cancer, and 0.71 for respiratory mortality.

Conclusions: Nut intake was related to lower overall and cause-specific mortality, with evidence for nonlinear dose-response relationships. Peanut butter was not related to mortality.

Keywords: Nuts; cohort studies; mortality; neoplasms; peanuts; respiratory tract diseases.


Acute vascular benefits of Finnish sauna bathing in patients with stable coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Can J Cardiol. 2020 Jun 29. Epub 2020 Jun 29. PMID: 32615263
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Finnish sauna bathing habits are associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular mortality. The physiologic adaptations mediating this association remain to be fully elucidated. This study tested the hypothesis that Finnish sauna bathing acutely improves peripheral flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in middle-aged and older adults with stable coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Twenty-two adults (20 male, 2 female; 67 ± 10 years) with stable CAD underwent 2 periods of 10 minutes in a Finnish sauna (81.3 ± 2.7°C, 23 ± 3% humidity) separated by 10 minutes of thermoneutral rest. Before and 51 ± 8 minutes after sauna bathing, brachial artery FMD and postocclusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) were evaluated by means of Doppler ultrasound.

Results: Sauna bathing increased core temperature (mean +0.66°C [95% CI 0.54-0.77], P < 0.01) and heart rate (+27 beats/min [24-29], P < 0.01), and decreased systolic (-19 mm Hg [-31 to -6]; P < 0.01) and diastolic (-6 mm Hg [-11 to -1], P < 0.01) blood pressures. Brachial artery FMD was greater after sauna bathing (+1.21% [0.16-2.26], P = 0.04), whereas PORH was unchanged (peak: +0.51 mL/min/mm Hg [-0.13 to 1.15], P = 0.11; area under the curve: +0.21 mL/mm Hg [-0.12 to 0.54]; P = 0.19).

Conclusions: A typical Finnish sauna bathing session acutely improves peripheral FMD in middle-aged and older adults with stable CAD.


Consuming 42.5 g of almonds per day is a cost-effective approach to prevent cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : BMC Public Health. 2020 Apr 25 ;20(1):558. Epub 2020 Apr 25. PMID: 32334551
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved the health claim that 1.5 oz (42.5 g) of nut intake may reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have focused on the cost-effectiveness of other foods or dietary factors on primary cardiovascular disease prevention, yet not in almond consumption. This study aimed to examine the cost-effectiveness of almond consumption in cardiovascular disease primary prevention.

Perspective & setting: This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of consuming 42.5 g of almond from the U.S. healthcare sector perspective.

Methods: A decision model was developed for 42.5 g of almond per day versus no almond consumption and cardiovascular disease in the U.S.

Population: Parameters in the model were derived from the literature, which included the probabilities of increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, developing acute myocardial infarction and stroke, treating acute myocardial infarction, dying from the disease and surgery, as well as the costs of the disease and procedures in the U.S. population, and the quality-adjusted life years. The cost of almonds was based on the current price in the U.S. market. Sensitivity analyses were conducted for different levels of willingness-to-pay, the probabilistic sensitivity analysis, ten-year risk prevention, different costs of procedures and almond prices, and patients with or without cardiovascular disease.

Results: The almond strategy had $363 lower cost and 0.02 higher quality-adjusted life years gain compared to the non-almond strategy in the base-case model. The annual net monetary benefit of almond consumption was $1421 higher per person than no almond consumption, when the willingness to pay threshold was set at $50,000 for annual health care expenditure. Almond was more cost-effective than non-almond in cardiovascular disease prevention in all the sensitivity analyses.

Conclusion: Consuming 42.5 g of almonds per day is a cost-effective approach to prevent cardiovascular disease in the short term and potentially in the long term.

Keywords: Almond; Cardiovascular disease; Cost-effectiveness analysis; Heart disease; Myocardial infarction; Stroke.

Conflict of interest statement

G.R. was a consultant for Porter Novelli and E.J.J. had additional funds from the Almond Board of California for a clinical trial at the time of the study. Other authors declare that they have no competing interests.


Local vascular complications following angioplasty are seen in 5% to 10% of patients

Pubmed Data : Korean Circ J. 2010 Dec;40(12):677-679. Epub 2010 Dec 31. PMID: 21267392
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

The percutaneous transfemoral approach has been routinely used for cardiac catheterization and coronary angioplasty. Local vascular complications following angioplasty are seen in 5% to 10% of patients, especially in those who need prolonged anticoagulation. Transradial access for coronary procedures dramatically reduces access site complications. We report a rare case of radial arteriovenous fistula, which developed after coronary angiography perfomed using the transradial approach.

Keywords: Arteriovenous fistula; Coronary angiography; Radial artery.


Plasma polyphenols and antioxidants, oxidative DNA damage and endothelial function in a diet and wine intervention study in humans

Pubmed Data : Drugs Exp Clin Res. 1999 ;25(2-3):133-41. PMID: 10370876
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

An intervention study was performed to evaluate the influence of a Mediterranean diet, a high fat diet, and their supplementation with red wine in moderate amounts, on biochemical, physiological, and clinical parameters related to atherosclerosis and other chronic diseases. For 3 months two groups of 21 male volunteers each, received either a Mediterranean diet or a high fat diet; during the second month, red wine was added isocalorically, 240 ml/day. Participants were kept under close medical and nutritional surveillance. At days 0, 30, 60 and 90, clinical, physiological and biochemical evaluations were made. Plasma vitamin C was significantly decreased in the high fat diet group compared to the Mediterranean diet group. After wine supplementation to the Mediterranean diet, a significant 13.5% increase in plasma vitamin C was observed. Furthermore, when wine was added vitamin E decreased significantly in plasma, 15% in the high fat diet and 26% in the Mediterranean diet. Total plasma antioxidant capacity (total antioxidant reactivity) increased 28% above basal levels in the Mediterranean diet group, but not in the high fat diet group. In both groups, wine induced a marked increase in total antioxidant reactivity above basal levels, 56% and 23%, respectively. Oxidative DNA damage, detected as 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels in blood leukocyte DNA, was markedly increased by the high fat diet; however, it was strongly reduced, to approximately 50% basal values, after wine supplementation, both in the high fat diet and Mediterranean diet groups. Endothelial function, evaluated noninvasively as flow-mediated vascular reactivity of the brachial artery, was suppressed by the high fat diet, and was normal after wine supplementation. These effects are attributed to oxidative stress associated with a high fat diet, and to the elevated plasma antioxidant capacity associated with wine consumption and the Mediterranean diet. The results presented support the following conclusions: a high fat diet induces oxidative stress; a diet rich in fruits and vegetables enhances antioxidant defenses; wine supplementation to a high fat or a Mediterranean diet increases plasma antioxidant capacity, decreases oxidative DNA damage, and normalizes endothelial function.


“Cardiac complications after liver transplantation are common (10% of patients experience>1 CVE within 3 years post OLT).”

Pubmed Data : Liver Transpl. 2011 Dec 5. Epub 2011 Dec 5. PMID: 22140067
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

As survival after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) improves, cardiovascular (CV) disease has emerged as the leading cause of non-graft-related deaths. The aims of our study were to determine the cumulative risk of CV events after OLT and to analyze predictive risk factors for those experiencing a CV event after OLT. We identified all adult patients who underwent OLT at our institution for end-stage liver disease between October 1996 and July 2008. The cumulative risk of CV events after OLT was analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors independently associated with CV events after OLT. In all, 775 patients were included in our study cohort (mean age of 53.3 years, female proportion = 44%, Caucasian proportion = 84%, median follow-up = 40 months). The most common indications for OLT were hepatitis C virus (33.2%), alcohol (14.5%), and cryptogenic cirrhosis (12.7%). Eighty-three patients suffered 1 or more CV events after OLT. Posttransplant metabolic syndrome was more prevalent in patients with CV events versus patients with no CV events (61.4% versus 34.1%, P < 0.001). According to a multivariate analysis, independent predictors of CV events were an older age at transplantation [odds ratio (OR) = 1.2, addition of 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-1.3, P = 0.006], male sex (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.2-3.3, P = 0.01), posttransplant diabetes (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.3, P = 0.003), posttransplant hypertension (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.1-3.0, P = 0.02), and mycophenolate mofetil (OR = 2.0, 95% CI = 1.3-3.2, P = 0.003). Among post-OLT patients, the cumulative risk at 5 years of 13.5%, respectively. In conclusion, cardiac complications after liver transplantation are common (Approximately 10% of patients experience 1 or move cv events). Patients with posttransplant hypertension and diabetes, which are modifiable risk factors, are approximately twice as likely to experience a CV event.


“Circulating levels of bisphenol A and phthalates are related to carotid atherosclerosis in the elderly.”

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2011 Sep ;218(1):207-13. Epub 2011 May 10. PMID: 21621210
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Bisphenol A Phthalates
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

“Circulating levels of metals are related to carotid atherosclerosis in elderly.”

Pubmed Data : Sci Total Environ. 2011 Dec 15. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PMID: 22178028
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aluminum
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

“Lipid-lowering drugs and essential omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in patients with coronary heart disease.”

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2005 Feb ;15(1):36-41. PMID: 15871849
Study Type : Human Study

“Vitamin D deficiency is a predictor of reduced survival in patients with heart failure; vitamin D supplementation improves outcome.”

Pubmed Data : Eur J Heart Fail. 2012 Feb 3. Epub 2012 Feb 3. PMID: 22308011
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D

206 volunteers were randomly placed into 2 dietary groups; the group consuming 3 portions of whole-grain (oat and wheat) foods significantly reduced their systolic blood pressure and pulse pressures

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct ;92(4):733-40. Epub 2010 Aug 4. PMID: 20685951
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Whole Grains

A 10-month exercise program reduces oxidized LDL levels

Pubmed Data : Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1998 Oct;30(10):1496-501. PMID: 9789849
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

A causual relationship between dextroamphetamine use and cardiomyopathy has been reported

Pubmed Data : Am Heart J. 1976 Jun;91(6):792-7. PMID: 132114
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Dextroamphetamine


A combination of coenzyme10, vitamin E, selenium, methionine and phospholipids protects against occupational and environmental stress in workers of the gas and oil industry

Pubmed Data : Biofactors. 2003;18(1-4):245-54. PMID: 14695940
Study Type : Human Study

A combination of GLA and EPA may have therapeutic value in peripheral arterial disease

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 1998 Dec;17(6):265-71. PMID: 10205349
Study Type : Human Study

A combination of heart rate variability (HRV) biofeedback and breathing retraining has the potential to improve cardiac mortality and morbidity in heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2009 Jun;34(2):71-91. Epub 2009 Feb 10. PMID: 19205870
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : BiofeedbackTherapeutic Breathing

A combination of Phellodendron and Citrus peel extract has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular risk factors; namely lipid levels, blood pressure and fasting glucose levels

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2008;7:16. Epub 2008 May 20. PMID: 18492265
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Citrus Peel Phellodendron
Pharmacological Actions : Hypoglycemic AgentsHypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

A diet high in plant sterols, soy protein, viscous fibers and almonds compares favorably to statin therapy in reducing C-reactive protein

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jul;59(7):851-60. PMID: 15900306
Study Type : Human Study

A diet rich in extra virgin coconut oil seems to favour the reduction of waist circumference and the increase of HDL-C concentrations

Pubmed Data : Nutr Hosp. 2015 ;32(5):2144-52. Epub 2015 Nov 1. PMID: 26545671
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coconut Oil
Additional Keywords : Anti-Obesity Agents

A greater baseline adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was associated with longer telomeres in women

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2016 Apr 1. Epub 2016 Apr 1. PMID: 27083496
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Telomere Protective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

A high dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid/arachidonic acid ratio and high DGLA levels, but not AA levels, are associated with a better prognosis in patients with acute cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Lipids Health Dis. 2017 Aug 14 ;16(1):150. Epub 2017 Aug 14. PMID: 28806965
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsCardioprotective

A high vitamin K2 (menaquinone) intake reduces the incidence of coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2009 Sep;19(7):504-10. Epub 2009 Jan 28. PMID: 19179058
Study Type : Human Study

A higher banana intake was significantly associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in women

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2014 Jan 28 ;111(2):353-62. Epub 2013 Jul 19. PMID: 23866068
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : BananaFruit: AllVegetables: All
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

A higher intake of vegetable lipids, Vitamin E and higher concentrations of serum HDL cholesterol may reduce the risk of peripheral arterial disease

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2006 May;186(1):200-6. Epub 2005 Aug 19. PMID: 16112120
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vegetables: All Vitamin E
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

A higher level of fruit consumption was associated with lower blood pressure and blood glucose levels among Chinese adults

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2016 Apr 7 ;374(14):1332-43. PMID: 27050205
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: All
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

A large percentage of the cardiovascular disease burden can be alleviated by promoting even modest increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in Japan

Pubmed Data : BMC Public Health. 2019 Jun 7 ;19(1):707. Epub 2019 Jun 7. PMID: 31174509
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

A large randomized trial following 4100+ men and women with heart failure and normal ejection fraction (>=45%) over 4+ years found no improvement in study outcomes or survival with irbesartan as compared to placebo

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2008 Dec 4;359(23):2456-67. Epub 2008 Nov 11. PMID: 19001508
Study Type : Human Study

A low glycemic index diet with soy protein and phytosterols improves risk factors for cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Nutrition. 2006 Feb;22(2):104-13. PMID: 16459222
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : PhytosterolsSoy Protein

A low plasma vitamin D concentration was strongly associated with atrial fibrillation in patients with chronic heart failure

Pubmed Data : Adv Clin Exp Med. 2016 Jul-Aug;25(1):51-7. PMID: 26935498
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D

A Mediterranean diet adherence wis associated with a significantly reduced cardiovascular risk

Pubmed Data : Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Dec 15;170(12):1518-29. Epub 2009 Nov 10. PMID: 19903723
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


A Mediterranean diet and healthful lifestyle is associated with a more than 50% lower rate of all-causes and cause-specific mortality

Pubmed Data : JAMA. 2004 Sep 22 ;292(12):1433-9. PMID: 15383513
Study Type : Human Study

A Mediterranean diet is associcated with a reduced risk of acute coronary events

Pubmed Data : East Mediterr Health J. 2002 Jul-Sep;8(4-5):593-602. PMID: 15603042
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


A Mediterranean diet moderates the development and clinical progression of coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Vitam Horm. 2009;81:487-504. PMID: 15278010
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


A natural cardioprotective functional ingredient exhibits antiinflammatory, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory, and anti-aggregation properties

Pubmed Data : Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar ;56(2):461-482. Epub 2016 Jul 7. PMID: 27388464
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Tomato
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

A nut-enriched diet has cholesterol-lowering properties, and olive oil has a cholesterol-lowering property independent of its fatty acid content

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2011 Jun ;21 Suppl 1:S14-20. Epub 2011 Mar 21. PMID: 21421296
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : AlmondOliveWalnut
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsCardioprotective

A pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2018 Mar 11 ;10(3). Epub 2018 Mar 11. PMID: 29534487
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Pecan
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

A pro-inflammatory diet was associated with a significantly higher risk for developing cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2015 ;10(9):e0135221. Epub 2015 Sep 4. PMID: 26340022
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

A single dose of proanthocyanidins reduced LDL concentration and increased plasma adiponectin after 24 hours

Pubmed Data : Eur J Nutr. 2017 Mar ;56(2):893-900. Epub 2015 Dec 24. PMID: 26704712
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Adiponectin upregulationAntioxidants
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsProanthocyanidins

A standardized extract of P. emblica may provide beneficial effects in overweight/Class-1 obese adults by lowering multiple global CVD risk factors

Pubmed Data : J Med Food. 2015 Apr ;18(4):415-20. Epub 2015 Mar 10. PMID: 25756303
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Amla Fruit
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsRisk Reduction

A systematic physical exercise program and S. maxima supplementation showed a beneficial reduction in BMI, VO2max, and blood lipid profile

Pubmed Data : Antioxidants (Basel). 2019 Oct 23 ;8(11). Epub 2019 Oct 23. PMID: 31652765
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Spirulina
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveHypolipidemic

A vegetarian diet is associated with a healthier profile of cardiovascular biomarkers compared to omnivorous

Pubmed Data : Clin Chim Acta. 2016 Aug 2 ;461:110-113. Epub 2016 Aug 2. PMID: 27496081
Study Type : Human Study

Abdominal obesity and the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2008 Apr 1 ;117(13):1658-67. Epub 2008 Mar 24. PMID: 18362231
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Açai could have a beneficial overall role against atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2017 Feb 8. Epub 2017 Feb 8. PMID: 28249700
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Acai
Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsMalondialdehyde Down-regulation

Accelerated aging and age-related diseases due to air pollution and traffic noise exposure

Pubmed Data : Int J Mol Sci. 2021 Feb 28 ;22(5). Epub 2021 Feb 28. PMID: 33670865
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Accelerated Aging

ACE Inhibitors/Angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonists do not reduce hospitalisations in older patients with heart failure

Pubmed Data : Drugs Aging. 2007;24(11):945-55. PMID: 17953461
Study Type : Human Study

Acupuncture might have beneficial effect on reducing the risk of coronary heart disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

Pubmed Data : BMC Complement Altern Med. 2018 Dec 22 ;18(1):341. Epub 2018 Dec 22. PMID: 30577824
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Acupuncture
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Acute effects of air pollutants on daily mortality and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases

Pubmed Data : J Thorac Dis. 2019 Jul ;11(7):3070-3083. PMID: 31463136
Study Type : Human Study

Acute effects of diets rich in almonds and walnuts on endothelial function

Pubmed Data : Indian Heart J. 2018 Jul – Aug;70(4):497-501. Epub 2018 Feb 1. PMID: 30170643
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : AlmondWalnut
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Acute EGCG supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Nutr. 2007 Apr;26(2):95-102. PMID: 17536120
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Catechin Tea
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Adderrall use has been linked to cardiomyopathy and heart failure

Pubmed Data : Am J Ther. 2008 May-Jun;15(3):287-9. PMID: 18496266
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : AdderallAmphetamineDextroamphetamine
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Additive benefits of twice forest bathing trips in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

Pubmed Data : Biomed Environ Sci. 2018 Feb ;31(2):159-162. PMID: 29606196
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may protect against coronary artery wall production of inflammatory mediators in patients with unstable angina pectoris

Pubmed Data : Eur J Nutr. 2005 Sep;44(6):348-54. Epub 2004 Nov 24. PMID: 16151968
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive

Adherence to a Mediterranean-like dietary pattern reduced mortality among elderly men

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;92(4):967-74. Epub 2010 Sep 8. PMID: 20826627
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Cardiac Mortality
Additional Keywords : Low Carb Diet Problems

Adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet can influence cardiovascular risk factors in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : J Acad Nutr Diet. 2016 Aug 25. Epub 2016 Aug 25. PMID: 27568885
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Adherence to an anti-inflammatory diet has beneficial effects on aging and health by slowing down telomere shortening

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Oct ;102(4):897-904. Epub 2015 Sep 9. PMID: 26354530
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Telomere Protective
Additional Keywords : Telomere Length

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and subsequent cognitive decline in men with cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Nutr Neurosci. 2020 Jan 22:1-9. Epub 2020 Jan 22. PMID: 31965911
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Neuroprotective Agents

Adherence to the mediterranean diet is inversely associated with inflammation (circulating interleukin-6) among middle-aged men

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2008 Jan 15;117(2):169-75. Epub 2007 Dec 17. PMID: 18086924
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-6 Downregulation
Additional Keywords : Inverse Relationship

Administration of L-arginine and citrulline to patients improve the condition of heart failure patients with preserved ejection fraction

Pubmed Data : Cardiol J. 2010;17(6):612-8. PMID: 21154265
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : ArginineCitrulline
Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotonic Agents

Aerobic training and purslane seed ere effective in the regulation of diabetic biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis in women with T2D

Pubmed Data : Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 5 ;6:37819. Epub 2016 Dec 5. PMID: 27917862
Study Type : Human Study

AGE has the ability to stabilize vulnerable plaque and decrease adverse cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2016 Feb ;146(2):427S-32S. Epub 2016 Jan 13. PMID: 26764322
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenicCardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

AGE+CoQ10 are associated with beneficial effects on inflammatory markers and reduced progression of coronary atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : J Cardiovasc Dis Res. 2012 Jul ;3(3):185-90. PMID: 22923934
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10Garlic: Aged
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenicAnti-Inflammatory Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Aged garlic extract and coenzyme Q10 have a beneficial effect on vascular elasticity and endothelial function in firefighters with high occupational stress

Pubmed Data : Nutrition. 2012 Aug 1. Epub 2012 Aug 1. PMID: 22858191
Study Type : Human Study

Aged garlic extract inhibits coronary artery calcification progression, lowers IL–6, glucose levels and blood pressure

Pubmed Data : BMC Complement Med Ther. 2020 Apr 29 ;20(1):132. Epub 2020 Apr 29. PMID: 32349742
Study Type : Human Study

Aged garlic extract may exert several positive direct effects on the development and progression of cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb ;19(2):1490-1499. Epub 2019 Dec 27. PMID: 32010328
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic: Aged
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveVasoprotective

Aged garlic extract preserves cutaneous microcirculation in patients with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Int Wound J. 2019 Sep 13. Epub 2019 Sep 13. PMID: 31518044
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic: Aged
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Aged garlic extract reduces low attenuation plaque in coronary arteries of patients with diabetes

Pubmed Data : Exp Ther Med. 2020 Feb ;19(2):1457-1461. Epub 2019 Dec 27. PMID: 32010322
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic: Aged
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic

Aged garlic extract supplemented with B vitamins, folic acid and L-arginine retards the progression of subclinical atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2004 Feb;83(3):221-31. PMID: 19573556
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : ArginineB-complexGarlicVitamin B-12
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable with a high safety profile as a stand-alone or adjunctive antihypertensive treatment

Pubmed Data : Integr Blood Press Control. 2016 ;9:9-21. Epub 2016 Jan 27. PMID: 26869811
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic: Aged
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsRisk Reduction

Aged garlic extract with supplement is associated with increase in brown adipose, decrease in white adipose tissue and predict lack of progression in coronary atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2013 Mar 1. Epub 2013 Mar 1. PMID: 23453866
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Air pollution from fossil-fuels combustion and road dust resuspension were associated with the increased risk of cardiovascular disease in Pakistan

Pubmed Data : Environ Pollut. 2019 Jun 23 ;252(Pt B):1412-1422. Epub 2019 Jun 23. PMID: 31260941
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Almonds eaten before breakfast can reduce serum uric acid in coronary artery disease patients

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2016 ;15(1):77. Epub 2016 Aug 19. PMID: 27543277
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Almond
Pharmacological Actions : Uricosuric Agents
Additional Keywords : Dietary Concentrations

Almonds significantly increased HDL cholesterol in coronary artery disease patients

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2015 Oct ;145(10):2287-92. Epub 2015 Aug 12. PMID: 26269239
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Almond
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents

Almonds used as snacks in the diets of hyperlipidemic subjects significantly reduce coronary heart disease risk factors

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2002 Sep 10;106(11):1327-32. PMID: 12221048
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Almond

Alpha lipoic acid may decrease the cardiovascular disease risk in type 2 diabetic patients

Pubmed Data : Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2020 ;2020:5850865. Epub 2020 Mar 9. PMID: 32256955
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Alpha-Lipoic Acid
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Alpha-linolenic acid intake confers protection against cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2003 Apr 1;107(12):1586-91. Epub 2003 Mar 10. PMID: 12668490
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Alpha-Lipoic acid and acetyl-L-carnitine appear to improve vascular function and blood pressure in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2007 Apr;9(4):249-55. PMID: 17396066
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Vasodilator Agents

Alpha-lipoic acid or in combination with eicosapentaenoic acid modulates the inflammatory status of healthy overweight or obese women

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2016 Mar 9. Epub 2016 Mar 9. PMID: 26962183
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Alpha-lipoic acid supplementation improves vascular tone and may have a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health in overweight/obese youths

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Feb 12 ;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 12. PMID: 30759784
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Alpha-Lipoic Acid
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Although statin drugs decrease LDL cholesterol in end-stage kidney disease, their use does not lower morbidity or mortality

Pubmed Data : Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Aug;30(8):823-9. PMID: 20653359
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : AtorvastatinRosuvastatinStatin Drugs

Altilix supplementation was a beneficial approach in the management of hepatic and cardiometabolic alterations in metabolic syndrome subjects

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Oct 25 ;11(11). Epub 2019 Oct 25. PMID: 31731527
Study Type : Human Study

Ambient air pollutants were associated with daily cardiovascular admissions in Northern Vietnam

Pubmed Data : Sci Total Environ. 2019 Nov 3 ;703:134637. Epub 2019 Nov 3. PMID: 31731158
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Ambient particulate air pollution and daily mortality in 652 cities

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2019 08 22 ;381(8):705-715. PMID: 31433918
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Among patients with established heart disease, moderate consumption of wine seems to be associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular events and total mortality as compared with non drinkers

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2011 Jul 5. Epub 2011 Jul 5. PMID: 21737162
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Red Wine ExtractWine

An anthocyanin mixture reduced the inflammatory response in hypercholesterolemic subjects

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Sep ;23(9):843-9. Epub 2012 Aug 17. PMID: 22906565
Study Type : Human Study

An increase in dietary intake of vitamin K is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular, cancer, or all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2014 May ;144(5):743-50. Epub 2014 Mar 19. PMID: 24647393
Study Type : Human Study

An Intervention with royal jelly for three months considerably lowered the total cholesterol and LDL-c levels

Pubmed Data : Pharm Biol. 2017 Dec ;55(1):497-502. PMID: 27937077
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Royal Jelly
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

An isoflavonoid-rich herbal preparation Karinat may play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis progression in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Int J Mol Sci. 2016 ;17(8). Epub 2016 Aug 11. PMID: 27529226
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsRisk Reduction

An oat bran enriched diet improves the lipid profile in patients with an increased coronary heart disease risk. A controlled randomized lifestyle intervention study

Pubmed Data : Ann Nutr Metab. 2003;47(6):306-11. PMID: 14520027
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Oat BranOats

Analysis of short-term effects of air pollution on cardiovascular disease using bayesian spatio-temporal models

Pubmed Data : Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 01 31 ;17(3). Epub 2020 Jan 31. PMID: 32023829
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Annurca apple as a functional food for the contribution to a healthy balance of plasma cholesterol levels

Pubmed Data : J Sci Food Agric. 2017 May ;97(7):2107-2115. Epub 2016 Sep 23. PMID: 27571713
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Apple
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsCardioprotective

Anti-inflammatory effects of diet and caloric restriction in metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : J Endocrinol Invest. 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8. PMID: 33686615
Study Type : Human Study

Antioxidants decreases the intensification of low density lipoprotein in vivo peroxidation during therapy with statins

Pubmed Data : Mol Cell Biochem. 2003 Jul;249(1-2):129-40. PMID: 12956408
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10Vitamin E
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsEnzyme Inhibitors

Apple pectin significantly reduces Cesium-137 load within 16 days in children exposed to radioisotopes as a result of Chernobyl

Pubmed Data : Swiss Med Wkly. 2004 Dec 18;134(49-50):725-9. PMID: 15635491
Study Type : Human Study

Aromatherapy massage can help in alleviating psychological and physiological responses among patients with acute coronary syndrome

Pubmed Data : Int J Nurs Pract. 2017 Dec ;23(6). Epub 2017 Oct 25. PMID: 29071755
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Aromatherapy Massage
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Anxiety AgentsAntidepressive Agents

Aronia berry polyphenol consumption reduces plasma total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2017 Jan ;37:67-77. Epub 2016 Dec 10. PMID: 28215316
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Hypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

As an initial management strategy in patients with stable coronary artery disease, PCI did not reduce the risk of death, myocardial infarction, or other major cardiovascular events when added to optimal medical therapy

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2007 Apr 12;356(15):1503-16. Epub 2007 Mar 26. PMID: 17387127
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Anti Therapeutic Actions : Angioplasty

Ascorbic acid reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 1996 Mar 15;93(6):1107-13. PMID: 8653830
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin C
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Aspirin increases mortality in diabetic patients without cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2009 Dec;18(12):1143-9. PMID: 19672841
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aspirin

Aspirin use was not found to lower the risk of heart attack or death from cardiovascular causes

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2005 Mar 31;352(13):1293-304. Epub 2005 Mar 7. PMID: 15753114
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aspirin

Aspirin with or without chronic oral anticoagulant treatment does not reduce mortality or reinfarction, reduces stroke, but is associated with significantly more major bleeding

Pubmed Data : Am J Med. 2010 Mar;123(3):250-8. PMID: 20193834
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : AnticoagulantsAntiplatelet DrugsAspirin

Association between ambient fine particulate pollution and hospital admissions for cause specific cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : BMJ. 2019 12 30 ;367:l6572. Epub 2019 Dec 30. PMID: 31888884
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Association between fine particulate matter and heart failure hospitalizations

Pubmed Data : Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2021 Jan 26. Epub 2021 Jan 26. PMID: 33501575
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Association of ambient air pollution with cardiovascular disease risks in people with type 2 diabetes

Pubmed Data : Environ Health. 2020 Nov 5 ;19(1):110. Epub 2020 Nov 5. PMID: 33153466
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Association of vitamin D deficiency and degree of coronary artery disease in cardiac patients with type 2 diabetes

Pubmed Data : J Diabetes Res. 2017 ;2017:3929075. Epub 2017 Nov 2. PMID: 29230421
Study Type : Human Study

Associations between ambient air pollution and mortality from all causes

Pubmed Data : Environ Res. 2019 Sep ;176:108531. Epub 2019 Jun 11. PMID: 31226628
Study Type : Human Study

Astragalus has a significant effect on improving heart function in patients with congestive heart failure

Pubmed Data : Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 2001 Oct;21(10):747-9. PMID: 12575607
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Astragalus
Diseases : Heart Failure

Astragalus improves cardiac function in aged patients with Chronic Heart Failure

Pubmed Data : Chin J Integr Med. 2005 Sep;11(3):187-90. PMID: 16181532
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Astragalus
Diseases : Heart Failure

Atorvastatin decreases the coenzyme Q10 level in the blood of patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and stroke

Pubmed Data : Arch Neurol. 2004 Jun;61(6):889-92. PMID: 15210526
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Atorvastatin

Atorvastatin worsens left ventricular diastolic function, which is improved through coenzyme q10 supplementation

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 2004 Nov 15 ;94(10):1306-10. PMID: 15541254
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsAntioxidants
Problem Substances : AtorvastatinStatin Drugs
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Australian men and women who consumed a MedDiet for 6 mo had small but significantly lower systolic blood pressure and improved endothelial function

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Jun ;105(6):1305-1313. Epub 2017 Apr 19. PMID: 28424187
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Avenanthramides (AV), alkaloids occurring only in oats, may have anti-atherosclerotic activity as exhibited by their bioavailability and antioxidant capacity in healthy older adults

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2007 Jun;137(6):1375-82. PMID: 17513394
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Oats
Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Baked/boiled fish reduces heart failure risk in postmenopausal women whereas fried fish increases it

Pubmed Data : Circ Heart Fail. 2011 Jul 1 ;4(4):404-13. Epub 2011 May 24. PMID: 21610249
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fish
Diseases : Heart Failure
Problem Substances : Fried Foods

Balneotherapy may play a preventive role on cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Int J Biometeorol. 2018 May ;62(5):833-842. Epub 2017 Dec 7. PMID: 29218448
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : BalneotherapySpa Bathing

Barley consumption may reduce cardiovascular risk factors

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Nutr. 2004 Feb;23(1):55-62. PMID: 14963054
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Barley

Baseline vitamin D levels below 55-65 nmol/L are predictive of all-cause mortality, CVD death and heart failure

Pubmed Data : Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2017 Sep 26. Epub 2017 Sep 26. PMID: 28949411
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Beetroot’s high nitrate content is responsible for its vasoprotective effects

Pubmed Data : Hypertension. 2008 Mar;51(3):784-90. Epub 2008 Feb 4. PMID: 18250365
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beet
Pharmacological Actions : Vasoprotective

Beneficial effects of Lactobacillus plantarum on glycemia and homocysteine levels in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : Nutrition. 2014 Jul-Aug;30(7-8):939-42. Epub 2013 Dec 14. PMID: 24613434
Study Type : Human Study

Beta Blockers, Calcium Channel Blockers, Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitor in combination with Diuretics are associated wtih increased risk for cardiovascular mortality versus Diuretics alone

Pubmed Data : JAMA. 2004 Dec 15;292(23):2849-59. PMID: 15598916
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Beta glucan found in reishi mushroom is a potent antioxidant against pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in stable angina and high risk patients

Pubmed Data : Indian Heart J. 2018 Sep – Oct;70(5):608-614. Epub 2017 Dec 14. PMID: 30392496
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beta-glucanReishi Mushroom
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Better adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with lower risk of myocardial Infarction, heart Failure and ischemic stroke

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2015 Sep 3 ;243(1):93-98. Epub 2015 Sep 3. PMID: 26363438
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Bicycling for transportation improves heart rate variability in young adults

Pubmed Data : J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2017 Mar ;57(3):299-304. Epub 2015 Dec 18. PMID: 26684436
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Exercise: Cycling
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Blood pressure is reduced and insulin sensitivity increased in glucose-intolerant, hypertensive subjects after 15 days of consuming high-polyphenol dark chocolate

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2008 Sep;138(9):1671-6. PMID: 18716168
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FlavonoidsPolyphenols

Blueberries decrease cardiovascular risk factors in obese men and women with metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2010 Sep;140(9):1582-7. Epub 2010 Jul 21. PMID: 20660279
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Blueberry
Pharmacological Actions : Hypotensive

Blueberry consumption seems to affect serum uric acid concentrations and its relationship with CVD risk factors in a sex-specific manner

Pubmed Data : Antioxidants (Basel). 2016 Nov 29 ;5(4). Epub 2016 Nov 29. PMID: 27916816
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Blueberry
Pharmacological Actions : Uricosuric Agents

Both high and low concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D are associated with elevated risks of overall and cancer mortality. Low concentrations are associated with cardiovascular mortality

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Oct;92(4):841-8. Epub 2010 Aug 18. PMID: 20720256
Study Type : Human Study

Both self‐reported periodontitis and edentulism were significantly associated with increased total mortality

Pubmed Data : J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Mar 29 ;6(4). Epub 2017 Mar 29. PMID: 28356279
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Both tai chi and resistance band groups saw reduced depression symptoms compared with treatment as usual

Pubmed Data : J Cardiopulm Rehabil Prev. 2019 Aug 7. Epub 2019 Aug 7. PMID: 31397771
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : DepressionHeart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise: Resistance TrainingTai Chi
Pharmacological Actions : Antidepressive Agents

Breast fed preterm born babies had lower cardiovascular risks in adult life compared with individuals who were exclusively formula fed as infants

Pubmed Data : Pediatrics. 2016 Jun 14. Epub 2016 Jun 14. PMID: 27302980
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Breastfeeding
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction
Problem Substances : Infant Formula

C-reactive protein (CRP) and long-term air pollution with a focus on ultrafine particles

Pubmed Data : Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2018 04 ;221(3):510-518. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29428699
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

C-reactive protein is a strong independent predictor of death in type 2 diabetes: association with multiple facets of the metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2006 Mar;114(3):127-34. PMID: 16636979
Study Type : Human Study

C-reactive protein is an important independent risk factor for cardiovascular and coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2008 Nov;1(2):92-7. Epub 2008 Nov 9. PMID: 20031795
Study Type : Human Study

C-Reactive Protein shows a predictive role in cardiovascular disease in patients with subclinical carotid artherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : J Burn Care Rehabil. 2005 Nov-Dec;26(6):515-24. PMID: 18317426
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

C. laevigata decreased neutrophil elastase and showed a trend to lower LDL-C

Pubmed Data : Phytomedicine. 2011 Jun 15 ;18(8-9):769-75. Epub 2011 Jan 15. PMID: 21242072
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hawthorn
Pharmacological Actions : Hypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : PhytotherapyPlant Extracts

Calcified atherosclerosis is directly implicated in the pathogenesis of both abdominal aorta and iliac arteries

Pubmed Data : J Vasc Surg. 2008 Jul;48(1):121-7. Epub 2008 Jun 2. PMID: 18515037
Study Type : Human Study

Calcium carbonate supplements are associated with aortic calcification in hemodialysis patients – Article 2

Pubmed Data : Clin Nephrol. 2004 Aug;62(2):104-15. PMID: 15356967
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Calcium Carbonate

Cardamon has blood pressure lowering, fibrinolysis enhancing and antioxidant activities

Pubmed Data : Indian J Biochem Biophys. 2009 Dec;46(6):503-6. PMID: 20361714
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cardamom
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsFibrinolytic AgentsHypotensive

Cardiac complications are common after liver transplantation

Pubmed Data : Transplantation. 2009 Mar 15 ;87(5):763-70. PMID: 19295324
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Diseases that are Linked

Cardiovascular disease may result from a dietary and lifestyle at odds with our Paleolithic genome

Pubmed Data : Mayo Clin Proc. 2004 Jan;79(1):101-8. PMID: 14708953
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Chan-Chuang qigong improves exercise capacity, depression, and quality of life in patients with heart failure

Pubmed Data : Hu Li Za Zhi. 2018 Oct ;65(5):34-44. PMID: 30276771
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : DepressionHeart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Qigong
Pharmacological Actions : Antidepressive Agents

Chia consumption results in a reduction in postprandial glucose excursion and prolongation of satiety

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2010 Apr ;64(4):436-8. Epub 2010 Jan 20. PMID: 20087375
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chia

Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with calcified atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries

Pubmed Data : Indian J Pharmacol. 2010 Dec;42(6):334-7. PMID: 20655129
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cocoa
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Chocolate consumption is inversely associated with prevalent coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2010 Sep 19. Epub 2010 Sep 19. PMID: 20858571
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cocoa
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Chocolate consumption may improve liver enzymes and protect against insulin resistance

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2016 Mar 17:1-8. Epub 2016 Mar 17. PMID: 26983749
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chocolate
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Chocolate consumption was associated with lower cardiac mortality in a dose dependent manner in patients free of diabetes surviving their first heart attack

Pubmed Data : J Intern Med. 2009 Sep;266(3):248-57. PMID: 19711504
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Chronic black tea consumption reduces platelet activation and plasma c-reactive protein in healthy men

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2007 Aug;193(2):277-82. Epub 2006 Sep 29. PMID: 17010979
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Black Tea

Chronic consumption of a low calorie, high polyphenol cranberry beverage attenuates inflammation and improves glucoregulation and HDL cholesterol

Pubmed Data : Eur J Nutr. 2018 Feb 23. Epub 2018 Feb 23. PMID: 29476238
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cranberry

Chronic daily consumption of a resveratrol-containing grape nutraceutical could exert cardiovascular benefits in stable-CAD patients

Pubmed Data : Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 2012 Dec 8. Epub 2012 Dec 8. PMID: 23224687
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Resveratrol
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsCardioprotective

Chronic L-arginine supplementation enhances endurance exercise tolerance in heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Int J Sports Med. 2006 Jul;27(7):567-72. PMID: 16802253
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Arginine
Diseases : Heart Failure

Chronic latent magnesium deficiency in obesity decreases positive effects of vitamin d on cardiometabolic risk indicators

Pubmed Data : Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2017 Aug 21. Epub 2017 Aug 21. PMID: 28828979
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Cistus incanus tea administration decreases cardiovascular risk factors including oxidative stress and dyslipidemia

Pubmed Data : Cardiol J. 2019 Mar 26. Epub 2019 Mar 26. PMID: 30912576
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Rock-rose
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsCardioprotectiveHypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : Herbal Teas

Clopidogrel therapy in the absence of a loading dose is associated with a significantly higher risk of death or myocardial infarction

Pubmed Data : Minerva Cardioangiol. 2004 Jun;52(3):195-208. PMID: 15194981
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Clopidogrel

Clopidopgrel use before an acute coronary syndrome had a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events than patients who were not

Pubmed Data : Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2009 Jun 1;73(7):866-70. PMID: 19198009
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Clopidogrel

Cocoa flavanol intake has the potential to reduce the 10-year risk of CV morbidity and mortality even in this healthy cohort by 20–30 % and 30–40 % respectively

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2015 Sep 9:1-10. Epub 2015 Sep 9. PMID: 26348767
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cocoa
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsCardioprotective

Cocoa inhibits LDL oxidation both in vitro and ex vivo

Pubmed Data : Mutat Res. 1999 Apr 6;440(2):181-8. PMID: 11185658
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FlavonoidsPolyphenols
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Cocoa intake is inversely associated with blood pressure and 15-year cardiovascular (47% reduction) and all-cause mortality (50% reduction)

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2006 Feb 27 ;166(4):411-7. PMID: 16505260
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Cocoa powder and dark chocolate may favorably affect cardiovascular disease risk status by modestly reducing LDL oxidation susceptibility and increasing serum total antioxidant capacity and HDL-cholesterol concentrations

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2001 Nov;74(5):596-602. PMID: 11684527
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Catechin Flavonoids
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants
Additional Keywords : Proanthocyanidins

Cocoa powder has a positive effect on inflammatory mediators in patients at high risk of cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2009 Nov;90(5):1144-50. Epub 2009 Sep 23. PMID: 19776136
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cocoa
Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotonic Agents

Coconut oil consumption improves fat-free mass, plasma HDL-cholesterol and insulin sensitivity

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2018 Dec 29. Epub 2018 Dec 29. PMID: 30630708
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coconut Oil
Pharmacological Actions : HypolipidemicInsulin Sensitizers

Coenzyme q10 appears to prevent tachycardia in heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Biofactors. 2008;32(1-4):145-9. PMID: 19096110
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Diseases : Heart FailureTachycardia

Coenzyme Q10 as an adjuvant in conventional therapy for heart failure reduces hospitalization and incidence of serious complications

Pubmed Data : Clin Investig. 1993;71(8 Suppl):S134-6. PMID: 8241697
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10

Coenzyme Q10 improves ejection fraction as an adjunctive therapy for congestive heart failure

Pubmed Data : N Z Med J. 2009 Oct 30;122(1305):74-9. PMID: 19966871
Study Type : Human Study

CoenzymeQ10 as adjuvant treatment in patients with heart failure may attenuate the incidence of atrial fibrillation

Pubmed Data : J Investig Med. 2015 Jun ;63(5):735-9. PMID: 25919281
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Additional Keywords : Significant Treatment Outcome

Coffee consumption may reduce the risk of all-cause and cardiac mortalit

Pubmed Data : Ann Intern Med. 2008 Jun 17;148(12):904-14. PMID: 18559841
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coffee
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Coffee drinking has a preventive effect on all-cause and on cardiovascular mortality in men and women

Pubmed Data : Circ J. 2019 Mar 25 ;83(4):757-766. Epub 2019 Mar 8. PMID: 30853684
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coffee
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Coffee may reduce mortality risk by favorably affecting inflammation, lung function, insulin sensitivity, and depression

Pubmed Data : Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Dec 15 ;182(12):1010-22. Epub 2015 Nov 27. PMID: 26614599
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coffee
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Combination exercise training resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese participants

Pubmed Data : BMC Public Health. 2012 ;12:704. Epub 2012 Aug 28. PMID: 23006411
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Combination therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel and warfarin following coronary stenting is associated with a significant risk of bleeding

Pubmed Data : J Invasive Cardiol. 2006 Apr;18(4):162-4. PMID: 16729401
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Combined aerobic and resistance training is more effective in the chronic modification of blood pressure and lipid profile

Pubmed Data : Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013 Oct ;13(4):928-35. Epub 2013 Feb 26. PMID: 23441809
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsHypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Concomitant treatment with oral L-arginine improves the efficacy of surgical angiogenesis in patients with severe diffuse coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2008 Apr;135(4):762-70, 770.e1. Epub 2008 Mar 18. PMID: 18374753
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Arginine

Concomitant use of a proton pump inhibitor and clopidogrel compared with clopidogrel alone was associated with a higher rate of major adverse cardiovascular events within 1 year after coronary stent placement

Pubmed Data : Pharmacotherapy. 2010 Aug;30(8):787-96. PMID: 20653354
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Drug Interaction
Problem Substances : ClopidogrelProton-Pump Inhibitors

Consumption of 1 oz of English walnuts per day may decrease cardiovascular risk

Pubmed Data : J Med Food. 2011 Sep ;14(9):890-8. Epub 2011 Apr 13. PMID: 21488754
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Walnut
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Consumption of aronia berry polyphenols improved endothelial function and modulated gut microbiota composition

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun 1. Epub 2019 Jun 1. PMID: 31152545
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chokeberry
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveGastrointestinal Agents
Additional Keywords : Microbiota

Consumption of chokeberry products modestly lowered blood pressure and reduced low-grade inflammation

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2016 Nov ;36(11):1222-1230. Epub 2016 Sep 14. PMID: 27865620
Study Type : Human Study

Consumption of flavonoid-rich fruits and risk of coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2020 Jun 9:1-26. Epub 2020 Jun 9. PMID: 32513342
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: All
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Consumption of fruit or fiber-fruit decreases the risk of cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2017 Mar 17 ;9(3). Epub 2017 Mar 17. PMID: 28304346
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Consumption of high flavanol dark chocolate confers modest improvements in cardiovascular function

Pubmed Data : Vascul Pharmacol. 2015 Aug ;71:70-8. Epub 2015 Apr 11. PMID: 25869509
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : ChocolateCocoaFlavonoids
Pharmacological Actions : Cardiovascular Agents

Consumption of olive oil polyphenols decreased plasma LDL concentrations and LDL atherogenicity in healthy young men

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2015 Jul 1. Epub 2015 Jul 1. PMID: 26136585
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive OilPolyphenols
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsAntioxidants
Additional Keywords : Dietary ModificationRisk Reduction

Consumption of over 2 cups a day of Italian style coffee is associated with increased coronary heart disease risk

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2015 ;10(5):e0126550. Epub 2015 May 6. PMID: 25946046
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coffee
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Consumption of policosanol enhances HDL functionality and reduces blood pressure

Pubmed Data : Int J Mol Med. 2017 Apr ;39(4):889-899. Epub 2017 Feb 24. PMID: 28259941
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Policosanol
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsHypolipidemic

Consumption of polyphenols results in a significant improvement in an established marker of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive participants

Pubmed Data : Heart. 2016 May 10. Epub 2016 May 10. PMID: 27164919
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages was positively associated with mortality primarily through CVD mortality and showed a graded association with dose

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2019 Apr 30 ;139(18):2113-2125. PMID: 30882235
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Sugar Sweetened Beverages

Consumption was associated with a better weight/adiposity and CVRF profile than seen in non-consumers

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2015 ;14:64. Epub 2015 Jun 28. PMID: 26123047
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Additional Keywords : Anti-Obesity AgentsRisk Reduction

Coq10 is safe and efficacious as an adjunctive therapy in heart failure

Pubmed Data : Forsch Komplementarmed Klass Naturheilkd. 2005 Apr;12(2):77-83. PMID: 8241700
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Diseases : Heart Failure

Coq10 used as an adjunctive therapy in heart failure improves clinical signs and symptoms in the majority of patients tested

Pubmed Data : Mol Aspects Med. 1994;15 Suppl:s287-94. PMID: 7752841
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Diseases : Heart Failure
Pharmacological Actions : Cardiovascular Agents

Coronary intervention for persistent occlusion after myocardial infarction. does not reduce the occurrence of death, reinfarction, or heart failure, and there was a trend toward excess reinfarction during 4 years of follow-up in stable patients with occlu

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2006 Dec 7;355(23):2395-407. Epub 2006 Nov 14. PMID: 17105759
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Anti Therapeutic Actions : Angioplasty

Cranberry juice consumption has a favorable effect on plasma HDL-cholesterol concentrations in men

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2006 Aug;96(2):357-64. PMID: 16923231
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cranberry

Cranberry juice consumption improves vascular function in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Mar 16. Epub 2011 Mar 16. PMID: 21411615
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cranberry

crocetin could be considered as a promising anti-atherogenic candidate for future studies

Pubmed Data : Food Funct. 2019 Nov 1 ;10(11):7461-7475. Epub 2019 Oct 31. PMID: 31667483
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Crocetin
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic

Curcuminoids supplementation could contribute to a reduced risk of cardiovascular events in dyslipidemic patients with T2D

Pubmed Data : Complement Ther Med. 2017 Aug ;33:1-5. Epub 2017 May 29. PMID: 28735818
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Curcuminoids
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveHypolipidemic

Cycle commuting was associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and all cause mortality

Pubmed Data : BMJ. 2017 Apr 19 ;357:j1456. Epub 2017 Apr 19. PMID: 28424154
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : ExerciseExercise: Cycling
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

D-ribose aids congestive heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Cancer Lett. 1992 Apr 30;63(3):237-41. PMID: 14607200
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : D-Ribose

Daily resveratrol consumption may help to prevent and control cardiovascular disease in overweight or obese individuals

Pubmed Data : Obes Rev. 2016 Jul 26. Epub 2016 Jul 26. PMID: 27456934
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Resveratrol
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Dark chocolate consumption may be associated with a reduction in blood pressure

Pubmed Data : Am J Hypertens. 2010 Jun;23(6):694-700. Epub 2010 Mar 4. PMID: 20203627
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Dark chocolate improves coronary vasomotion and reduces platelet reactivity

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2007 Nov 20;116(21):2376-82. Epub 2007 Nov 5. PMID: 17984375
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Flavonoids
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-PlateletVasodilator Agents

Deep breathing suppresses steady-state sympathetic nerve activity in patients with high levels of resting sympathetic tone as in heart failure

Pubmed Data : Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Oct 15 ;307(8):H1159-68. Epub 2014 Aug 15. PMID: 25128165
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Deep Breathing

Diabetics were 5.6 times more likely to have high CRP levels than nondiabetics, and at more risk of cardiovascular disease than nondiabetics

Pubmed Data : Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2015 ;8:427-35. Epub 2015 Sep 4. PMID: 26379442
Study Type : Human Study

Dietary flavonoid intake at midlife and healthy aging in women

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec ;100(6):1489-97. Epub 2014 Oct 29. PMID: 25411284
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : AppleBerries: AllFlavonoidsOnionOrange
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Dietary intake of isoflavones is associated with a lower prevalence of subclinical cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : J Hum Nutr Diet. 2019 Jul 15. Epub 2019 Jul 15. PMID: 31305957
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Isoflavones
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Dietary intake of menaquinone is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiac mortality, aortic calcification and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2004 Nov;134(11):3100-5. PMID: 15514282
Study Type : Human Study

Dietary intake of taurine and magnesium may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Hypertens Res. 2016 Dec ;39(12):848-856. Epub 2016 Jul 14. PMID: 27412799
Study Type : Animal Study, Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : MagnesiumTaurine
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Dietary intake of trans fatty acids is associated with increase in the risk of coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Ann Nutr Metab. 2008;52(1):24-8. Epub 2008 Jan 30. PMID: 18230967
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Hydrogenated Oil Trans Fatty Acids
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Dietary nitrate supplementation opposes the elevated diaphragm blood flow in chronic heart failure during submaximal exercise

Pubmed Data : Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2018 01 ;247:140-145. Epub 2017 Oct 14. PMID: 29037770
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beet
Diseases : Heart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise

Dietary patterns with a higher proinflammatory potential were associated with higher CVD risk

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Nov 10 ;76(19):2181-2193. PMID: 33153576
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased RiskInflammatory Diet

Dietary supplementation with flaxseed oil lowers blood pressure in dyslipidaemic patients

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Oct;61(10):1201-6. Epub 2007 Jan 31. PMID: 17268413
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Hypotensive

Dietary supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined reduced the inflammatory response in elderly humans

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2015 ;10(9):e0137680. Epub 2015 Sep 16. PMID: 26375288
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10Selenium
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Additional Keywords : Significant Treatment Outcome

Digoxin use was independently associated with significantly higher risk of death and a higher risk of hospitalization

Pubmed Data : Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Nov 20. Epub 2014 Nov 20. PMID: 25414270
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : MorbidityMortality
Problem Substances : Digoxin

Djembe drumming may improve cardiovascular health, without the cardiovascular risks to unhealthy or older populations that are associated with higher intensity exercise, and at the same time may decrease stress and anxiety levels

Pubmed Data : J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). 2014 Jun ;15(6):441-6. PMID: 24983262
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Drumming
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate does not reduce the progression of atherosclerosis in healthy individuals

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2002 Sep 17;106(12):1453-9. PMID: 12234947
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Dl-alpha-tocopherol acetate

Drinking water arsenic was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease among residents exposed to moderate levels of arsenic

Pubmed Data : Environ Health. 2015 Apr 12 ;14(1):35. Epub 2015 Apr 12. PMID: 25889926
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors
Problem Substances : Arsenic

Dynamic aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance

Pubmed Data : Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2006 Sep ;33(9):853-6. PMID: 16922820
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Exercise: AerobicExercise: Endurance
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

E-cigarettes and cigarettes worsen peripheral and central hemodynamics as well as arterial stiffness

Pubmed Data : Vasc Med. 2018 Jun 1:1358863X18779694. Epub 2018 Jun 1. PMID: 29985113
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors
Problem Substances : Electronic Cigarettes

Early initiation of treatment with EPA combined with statin after successful primary PCI reduced cardiovascular events after ACSEarly initiation of treatment with EPA combined with statin after successful primary PCI reduced cardiovascular events after ACS

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2016 Nov 9 ;228:173-179. Epub 2016 Aug 9. PMID: 27865182
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction
Problem Substances : Statin Drugs

EDTA regresses calcified coronary artery plaque volume, reduces angina and improves lipid profiles in patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Pubmed Data : Pathophysiology. 2004 Oct;11(2):95-101. PMID: 15364120
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Effect of 8 week intake of probiotic milk products on risk factors for cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2000 Apr ;54(4):288-97. PMID: 10745279
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : MilkProbiotics
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents

Effect of B vitamins supplementation on cardio-metabolic factors in patients with stable coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2020 ;29(2):245-252. PMID: 32674231
Study Type : Human Study

Effect of lycopene supplementation on cardiovascular parameters and markers of inflammation and oxidation in patients with coronary vascular disease

Pubmed Data : Food Sci Nutr. 2018 Sep ;6(6):1770-1777. Epub 2018 Aug 13. PMID: 30258622
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Lycopene

Energy drinks induce acute cardiovascular and metabolic changes pointing to potential risks for young adults

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2019 Feb 26. Epub 2019 Feb 26. PMID: 30805607
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors
Problem Substances : Energy Drinks
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : CardiotoxicHypertensive

EPA is incorporated into advanced atherosclerotic plaques and higher plaque EPA is associated with decreased plaque inflammation and increased stability

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2010 Sep;212(1):252-9. Epub 2010 May 20. PMID: 20542512
Study Type : Human Study

Estradiol may have proinflammatory effects in older men with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Med Sci Monit. 2010 Dec;16(12):CR593-7. PMID: 21119577
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin

Evidence shows a strong association between vitamin D deficiency and increased risk of heart failure in elderly populations

Pubmed Data : ESC Heart Fail. 2017 Aug 17. Epub 2017 Aug 17. PMID: 28817241
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

EVOO has beneficial effect on post-prandial glycemic and LDL-C profiles

Pubmed Data : Nutr Diabetes. 2015 ;5:e172. Epub 2015 Jul 20. PMID: 26192450
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive Oil
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsHypoglycemic Agents

Exercise programs had positive effects in reducing the severity of depression in heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Aug ;98(32):e16820. PMID: 31393414
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : DepressionHeart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Pharmacological Actions : Antidepressive Agents

Existing evidence suggests that exercise and many drug interventions are often potentially similar in terms of their mortality benefits

Pubmed Data : Br J Sports Med. 2015 Nov ;49(21):1414-1422. PMID: 26476429
Study Type : Human Study

Exposure levels of air pollution (PM2.5) and associated health risk in Kuwait

Pubmed Data : Environ Res. 2019 Dec ;179(Pt A):108730. Epub 2019 Sep 18. PMID: 31550597
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Exposure to airborne fine particulate matter is associated with impaired endothelial function and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation

Pubmed Data : Environ Res. 2020 Jan ;180:108890. Epub 2019 Nov 5. PMID: 31718786
Study Type : Human Study

Exposure to biomass smoke increase cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : F1000Res. 2020 ;9:307. Epub 2020 Apr 29. PMID: 33093943
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Exposure to higher concentration of PM2.5 in the ambient air is significantly associated with the development of high-risk coronary plaques

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2019 Dec 1 ;20(12):1355-1364. PMID: 31410457
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Exposure to simulated sunlight that contains both UVB and UVA reduce cardiovascular risk factors and improve quality of life

Pubmed Data : Anticancer Res. 2016 Mar ;36(3):1403-8. PMID: 26977043
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Therapeutic Actions : Sunlight exposure
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsCardioprotective

Extra virgin olive oil consumption could lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients on antiretroviral treatments

Pubmed Data : Med Sci Monit. 2015 ;21:2406-13. Epub 2015 Aug 16. PMID: 26280823
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive Oil
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenicAnti-Inflammatory Agents

Fiber and fruit intakes are associated with a reduction in total mortality

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2014 Dec ;100(6):1498-507. Epub 2014 Sep 10. PMID: 25411285
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FiberFruit: All
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveCardiovascular Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Fish at least once per week may reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death in men

Pubmed Data : JAMA. 1998 Jan 7;279(1):23-8. PMID: 9424039
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fish
Diseases : Cardiac Mortality
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Fish intake (excluding fried fish) reduces the risk of heart failure

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Jun 21;45(12):2015-21. PMID: 15963403
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fish Oil
Diseases : Heart Failure
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Flavanol-rich chocolate acutely improves vascular function in patients with congestive heart failure

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J. 2012 Sep ;33(17):2172-80. Epub 2011 Dec 15. PMID: 22173910
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chocolate
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Flavanone-rich citrus beverages counteract the transient decline in postprandial endothelial function in humans

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2016 Dec ;116(12):1999-2010. Epub 2017 Jan 9. PMID: 28065188
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Orange
Additional Keywords : Citrus Juice

Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate intake significantly improved coronary circulation in healthy adults

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2009 Jan 24;131(3):424-9. Epub 2007 Nov 28. PMID: 18045712
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Flavonoids

Flaxseed oil may be considered a promising agent with cardioprotective properties

Pubmed Data : Genes Nutr. 2020 May 5 ;15(1):9. Epub 2020 May 5. PMID: 32370762
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Flaxseed
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Endocannabinoid System

Folic acid and vitamin B(12) supplementation improves vascular endothelial function in patients with coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2000 Nov 14;102(20):2479-83. PMID: 11076820
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin B-12
Pharmacological Actions : Vasodilator Agents

Folic acid supplementation significantly improved endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2000 Sep;36(3):758-65. PMID: 10987596
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsVasodilator Agents

Following 3-month astaxanthin supplementation, suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac contractility and exercise tolerance

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2020 Jun 26 ;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 26. PMID: 32604721
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Astaxanthin
Diseases : Heart Failure
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsCardioprotective

Forest bathing has therapeutic effects on human hypertension and induces inhibition of the renin–angiotensin system and inflammation

Pubmed Data : J Cardiol. 2012 Dec ;60(6):495-502. Epub 2012 Sep 1. PMID: 22948092
Study Type : Human Study

Frequent consumption of fried foods was associated with a higher risk of all cause and cardiovascular mortality in women in the US

Pubmed Data : BMJ. 2019 01 23 ;364:k5420. Epub 2019 Jan 23. PMID: 30674467
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Fried Foods

Frequent nut and peanut butter consumption is associated with a significantly lower cardiovascular risk in women with type 2 diabetes

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2009 Jul;139(7):1333-8. Epub 2009 May 6. PMID: 19420347
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : NutsPeanut

Frequent nut consumption may offer postmenopausal women modest protection against the risk of death from all causes and coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2001 Dec;11(6):372-7. PMID: 12055701
Study Type : Human Study

Frequent nut consumption was associated with a reduced risk of both fatal coronary heart disease and non-fatal myocardial infarction

Pubmed Data : BMJ. 1998 Nov 14;317(7169):1341-5. PMID: 9812929
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts

Fried food consumption has a positive, dose-dependent association with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2019 Jun 5. Epub 2019 Jun 5. PMID: 31279615
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Dose ResponseIncreased Risk
Problem Substances : Fried Foods

Fruit and vegetable consumption has a beneficial effect on cardiovascular health by positively influencing plasma antioxidants and blood pressure

Pubmed Data : Cancer Lett. 2004 May 28;208(2):163-70. PMID: 12076551
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All

Fruit and vegetable intakes were associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Feb 22. Epub 2017 Feb 22. PMID: 28338764
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Garlic may provide an ideal alternative to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) in arteriosclerosis prevention

Pubmed Data : Inflammopharmacology. 2008 Apr;16(2):87-95. PMID: 2071264
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Garlic
Diseases : Arteriosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-PlateletCardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Natural Substances Versus Drugs

Garlic reduces a multitude of risk factors associated with arteriosclerosis and significantly reduces the risk for heart attack and stroke

Pubmed Data : Wien Med Wochenschr. 1999;149(8-10):217-24. PMID: 10483684
Study Type : Human Study

Gazpacho soup consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of hypertension

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2013 Oct ;23(10):944-52. Epub 2012 Nov 11. PMID: 23149074
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : PolyphenolsSoup
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents
Additional Keywords : Natural Substance Synergy

General marker for inflammation associated with many chronic diseases can be favourably modified with the consumption of specific nuts

Pubmed Data : Cureus. 2020 Jun 24 ;12(6):e8798. Epub 2020 Jun 24. PMID: 32742827
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : AlmondHazelnut Walnut
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsCardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Genistein has favorable effects on some predictors of cardiovascular risk in osteopenic, postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Exp Gerontol. 2010 Jan 18. Epub 2010 Jan 18. PMID: 17682090
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Genistein

Geomagnetic disturbances driven by solar activity enhance total and cardiovascular mortality risk in 263 U.S. cities

Pubmed Data : Environ Health. 2019 Sep 11 ;18(1):83. Epub 2019 Sep 11. PMID: 31511079
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Geomagnetic ActivityRisk Factors

Ginkgo biloba reduces nanoplaque formation in cardiovascular high-risk patients

Pubmed Data : Wien Med Wochenschr.2007;157(13-14):288-94PMID: 17704974
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Ginkgo biloba
Additional Keywords : Disease Regression

Ginseng improves the condition of patients with congestive heart failure and raises levels of T3 and T4

Pubmed Data : Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1999 Apr;19(4):209-11. PMID: 11783267
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Grape pomace phenolic extract reduces trimethylamine-n-oxide levels in humans

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Jan 10 ;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 10. PMID: 30634687
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : PolyphenolsResveratrol
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Grape seed extract significantly improved markers of inflammation and glycaemia and a sole marker of oxidative stress in obese Type 2 diabetic subjects at high risk of cardiovascular events over a 4-week period, which suggests it may have a therapeutic ro

Pubmed Data : Diabet Med. 2009 May;26(5):526-31. PMID: 19646193
Study Type : Human Study

Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract had beneficial effects on the progression of carotid atherosclerotic plaques

Pubmed Data : J Geriatr Cardiol. 2015 Jul ;12(4):417-23. PMID: 26345394
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Grape Seed Extract
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with lower CVD incidence and mortality in the UK

Pubmed Data : BMC Med. 2016;14(1):135. Epub 2016 Sep 29. PMID: 27679997
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with reduced fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : J Transl Med. 2016 ;14(1):91. Epub 2016 Apr 12. PMID: 27071746
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Greater adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet is associated with a significant reduction in mortality among individuals diagnosed as having coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2005 Apr 25;165(8):929-35. PMID: 15851646
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Green tea catechins are effective in reducing atherosclerosis risk associated with oxidative stress

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2016 Jan ;36(1):16-23. Epub 2015 Nov 3. PMID: 26773777
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsCardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Green tea catechins improve human forearm endothelial dysfunction and have anti-atherosclerotic effects in smokers

Pubmed Data : Circ J. 2010 Feb 4. Epub 2010 Feb 4. PMID: 20134098
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Catechin Green Tea
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Green tea consumption can be beneficial in improving the prognosis for stroke or MI survivors

Pubmed Data : Stroke. 2021 Mar ;52(3):957-965. Epub 2021 Feb 4. PMID: 33535784
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Green Tea
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Green tea consumption is associated with reduced mortality due to all causes and due to cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : JAMA. 2006 Sep 13;296(10):1255-65. PMID: 16968850
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Green Tea
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Green tea consumption was associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease incidence in the middle-aged and older Chinese populations

Pubmed Data : Sci Rep. 2016 ;6:24353. Epub 2016 Apr 13. PMID: 27072746
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Green Tea
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Grounding appears to be one of the simplest and yet most profound interventions for helping reduce cardiovascular risk and cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : J Altern Complement Med. 2013 Feb ;19(2):102-10. Epub 2012 Jul 3. PMID: 22757749
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Grounding: Contact with the Earth
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Guggul may be beneficial against atherogenesis via lipid lowering and inhibition of LDL oxidation

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2004 Feb;172(2):239-46. PMID: 15019533
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Guggul

H. sabdariffa extract improved metabolism, displayed potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and significantly reduced blood pressure

Pubmed Data : Mol Nutr Food Res. 2014 Jun ;58(6):1374-8. Epub 2014 Feb 24. PMID: 24668839
Study Type : Human Study

Harmful effects of NSAIDs among patients with hypertension and coronary artery disease include increased cardiac mortality

Pubmed Data : Am J Med. 2011 Jul;124(7):614-20. Epub 2011 May 18. PMID: 21596367
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Hawthorn (Crataegus) reduces the incidence of sudden cardiac death in patients with less compromised left ventricular function

Pubmed Data : Eur J Heart Fail. 2008 Dec;10(12):1255-63. Epub 2008 Nov 18. PMID: 19019730
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hawthorn
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsRisk Reduction

Hawthorn berry extract is safe and effective in improving exercise tolerance and quality of life in patients with congestive heart failure

Pubmed Data : Arzneimittelforschung. 2001 Oct;51(10):793-8. PMID: 11715631
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hawthorn

Hawthorn provides benefits as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. – Article 1

Pubmed Data : Am J Med. 2003 Jun 1;114(8):665-74. PMID: 12798455
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hawthorn
Diseases : Heart Failure

Hawthorn provides benefits as an adjunctive treatment for chronic heart failure. – Article 2

Pubmed Data : Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2008 Jan 23;(1):CD005312. PMID: 18254076
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hawthorn
Diseases : Heart Failure

Haze fine particles had significant impacts on cause-specific mortalities in Beijing

Pubmed Data : Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Jul 4 ;16(13). Epub 2019 Jul 4. PMID: 31277519
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Heart failure patients have high rates of B-vitamin deficiency

Pubmed Data : J Am Diet Assoc. 2009 Aug;109(8):1406-10. PMID: 19631047
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure

Hepatitis C and Chlamydia pneumoniae infection are related to the progression of carotid artherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi. 2006 Aug;97(8):245-55. PMID: 17087362
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


HFCS produced dose dependent increases of circulating lipid/lipoprotein risk factors for cardiovascular disease and uric acid within 2 weeks

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr 22. Epub 2015 Apr 22. PMID: 25904601
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : High Fructose Corn SyrupSugary soda
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Dyslipidemic

Hibiscus sabdariffa may be a useful dietary strategy to reduce endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease risk

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Feb 5 ;11(2). Epub 2019 Feb 5. PMID: 30764582
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hibiscus sabdariffa
Additional Keywords : Plant ExtractsRisk Reduction

High dietary intake of vitamin K rich foods is associated with a lower risk of coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2005 Feb;59(2):196-204. PMID: 15454972
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin K

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

High dietary menaquinone (Vitamin K2) intake is associated with reduced coronary calcification

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2009 Apr;203(2):489-93. Epub 2008 Jul 19. PMID: 18722618
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Menaquinone Vitamin K2
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

High dietary vitamin B6 consumption was associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2018 May 4. Epub 2018 May 4. PMID: 29764693
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin B-6
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

High dose B-complex vitamin supplementation significantly reduces progression of early-stage subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy individuals

Pubmed Data : Stroke. 2009 Mar;40(3):730-6. Epub 2008 Dec 31. PMID: 19118243
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : B-complex
Diseases : Atherosclerosis

High fructose corn syrup and fructose consumption increase risk factors for cardiovascular disease in human subjects

Pubmed Data : J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Aug 17. Epub 2011 Aug 17. PMID: 21849529
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : FructoseHigh Fructose Corn Syrup
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

High intake of flavonoids is associated with decreased carotid atherosclerosis in middle-aged Finnish men

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2007 Oct ;98(4):814-8. Epub 2007 Apr 30. PMID: 17466095
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Flavonoids
Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

High intakes of red meat were associated with a higher risk of all-cause and CVD mortality

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 24. Epub 2016 Aug 24. PMID: 27557655
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Meat

High trans fat consumption remains a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2007 Apr 10;115(14):1858-65. Epub 2007 Mar 26. PMID: 17389261
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Trans Fatty Acids

High-dose short-term folate administration modifies ambulatory blood pressure in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Oct;63(10):1266-8. Epub 2009 Jul 15. PMID: 19603054
Study Type : Human Study

High-fiber oat cereal lowers postprandial triglyceride and free fatty acid levels

Pubmed Data : Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2007 Sep ;77(5):347-56. PMID: 18453320
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FiberOats
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsHypoglycemic Agents

High-intensity endurance training enhances the positive effects of MeD on the regenerative capacity of endothelium and on the fitness of MetS patients

Pubmed Data : Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Sep ;123(6):361-73. PMID: 22489903
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Regenerative

High-intensity single-leg cycling improves cardiovascular disease risk factor profile

Pubmed Data : Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2019 May 27. Epub 2019 May 27. PMID: 31145180
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher anthocyanin intake is associated with lower arterial stiffness and central blood pressure in women

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Oct ;96(4):781-8. Epub 2012 Aug 22. PMID: 22914551
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : AnthocyaninsFlavonoids
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsVasoprotective

Higher chocolate intake was associated with a lower risk of future cardiovascular events in this stud

Pubmed Data : Heart. 2015 Aug ;101(16):1279-87. Epub 2015 Jun 15. PMID: 26076934
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chocolate
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher circulating concentrations of alpha-tocopherol within the normal range are associated with significantly lower total and cause-specific mortality in older male smokers

Pubmed Data : Phytomedicine. 2009 Dec;16(12):1105-11. Epub 2009 Jul 8. PMID: 17093175
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin E
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher consumption of nuts is associated with lower CVD incidence and mortality among participants with diabetes mellitus

Pubmed Data : Circ Res. 2019 Mar 15 ;124(6):920-929. PMID: 30776978
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher CRP levels are associated with peripheral arterial disease among US adults free of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension

Pubmed Data : Am Heart J. 2007 Sep;154(3):495-501. PMID: 17719297
Study Type : Human Study

Higher dietary fibre intake from fruit, vegetables and grains could reduce the risks of cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2016 Jun 6:1-13. Epub 2016 Jun 6. PMID: 27264785
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FiberFruit: AllVegetables: All
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher fresh fruit consumption was associated with significantly lower mortality from several major vascular and non-vascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Int J Epidemiol. 2017 Apr 24. Epub 2017 Apr 24. PMID: 28449053
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: All
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher intake of cryptoxanthin was shown to be related to low body mass and body fat in Japanese middle-aged women

Pubmed Data : Maturitas. 2017 Feb ;96:89-94. Epub 2016 Nov 16. PMID: 28041601
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Cryptoxanthin
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Anti-Obesity Agents

Higher intake of Fruit and vegtables during young adulthood was associated with lower odds of prevalent CAC after 20 years of follow-up

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2015 Oct 26. Epub 2015 Oct 26. PMID: 26503880
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All
Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher intakes of fruit-based flavonoids were associated with a lower risk of nonfatal MI and ischemic stroke in men

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug 3. Epub 2016 Aug 3. PMID: 27488237
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was associated with a slower age-related progression of aortic stiffness

Pubmed Data : J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Aug 7 ;6(8). Epub 2017 Aug 7. PMID: 28784651
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Additional Keywords : Physical ActivityRisk FactorsRisk Reduction

Higher physical activity levels were associated with a dose-dependent reduced risk of cardiovascular-related, cancer-related, and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : Mayo Clin Proc. 2016 Dec ;91(12):1706-1716. Epub 2016 Oct 21. PMID: 27776840
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Additional Keywords : Physical ActivityRisk Reduction

Higher plasma vitamin C concentration was associated with lower total mortality, heart disease mortality and cancer mortality

Pubmed Data : J Epidemiol Community Health. 2018 Aug 12. Epub 2018 Aug 12. PMID: 30100578
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin C
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Higher pro-inflammatory dietary score is associated with higher hyperuricemia risk

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Aug 5 ;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 5. PMID: 31387233
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Inflammatory DietRisk Factors

Highly absorptive curcumin reduces serum atherosclerotic low-density lipoprotein levels in patients with mild COPD

Pubmed Data : Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 ;11:2029-34. Epub 2016 Aug 26. PMID: 27616885
Study Type : Human Study

Honey consumption can improve the lipid profile such as; total cholesterol, TG and LDL and increase HDL

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr ESPEN. 2018 Aug ;26:8-12. Epub 2018 May 19. PMID: 29908688
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Honey
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsHypolipidemic
Problem Substances : Sucrose

Hydroxytyrosol changed body composition parameters and modulated the antioxidant profile, the expression of inflammation and oxidative stress-related genes

Pubmed Data : Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2017 ;2017:2473495. Epub 2017 Aug 9. PMID: 28855976
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Hydroxytyrosol
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsAntioxidants

Hypertension and low antioxidant levels are associated with the pathogenesis of abdominal aneurysm

Pubmed Data : Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1991 Mar;196(3):273-9. PMID: 1998004
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants
Additional Keywords : Diseases that are Linked

Hypertensive men and women who consumed 2 servings a week of yogurt, especially in the context of a healthy diet, were at lower risk for developing CVD

Pubmed Data : Am J Hypertens. 2018 Apr 13 ;31(5):557-565. PMID: 29462263
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Yoghurt
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Hypovitaminosis D is associated with subclinical peripheral arterial disease, independently of other cardiovascular risk factors

Pubmed Data : Arch Med Sci. 2016 Oct 1 ;12(5):1015-1022. Epub 2016 Aug 24. PMID: 27695492
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Ibuprofen use may increase the risk of thrombotic and congestive heart failure events

Pubmed Data : Ann Rheum Dis. 2007 Jun;66(6):764-70. Epub 2007 Apr 5. PMID: 17412741
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Implementation of hand reflexology and acupressure can have positive effects on anxiety and vital signs in patients with coronary artery diseases

Pubmed Data : Healthcare (Basel). 2019 Feb 11 ;7(1). Epub 2019 Feb 11. PMID: 30754687
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : AcupressureReflexology
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Anxiety Agents

Improvement of ventricular function in systolic heart failure patients with oral L-citrulline supplementation

Pubmed Data : Cardiol J. 2012 ;19(6):612-7. PMID: 23224924
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Citrulline

In a population of men with hypertension moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a decreased risk for heart attack but not with risks for cardiac mortality or all-cause mortality. .

Pubmed Data : Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jan 2;146(1):10-9. PMID: 17200217
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Alcohol
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents

In patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents the use of proton pump inhibitors was associated with a greater rate of major adverse cardiac events

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 15;105(6):833-8. PMID: 20211327
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aspirin
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

In patients with stable coronary artery disease, an independent and inverse association exists between n-3 fatty acid levels and inflammatory biomarkers

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2009 Aug;205(2):538-43. Epub 2008 Dec 14. PMID: 19185299
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-6 Downregulation

Increased frequency of nut consumption was associated with a significantly reduced risk of mortality

Pubmed Data : BMC Med. 2013 ;11:164. Epub 2013 Jul 16. PMID: 23866098
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Increased fruit, vegetable, and legume intakes may have greater beneficial effects on reducing all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2021 Jan 27. Epub 2021 Jan 27. PMID: 33581953
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Increases in dietary polyphenols are associated with decreased inflammatory biomarkers

Pubmed Data : Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2016 Apr 21. Epub 2016 Apr 21. PMID: 27100393
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Polyphenols
Additional Keywords : Dose ResponseRisk Reduction

Increases in urinary BPA concentrations are associated with increased incidence of coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2012 Feb 21. Epub 2012 Feb 21. PMID: 22354940
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Bisphenol A
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Increasing total consumption of nuts and intake of individual types of nuts was associated with a subsequent lower risk of cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : J Am Heart Assoc. 2020 Apr 7 ;9(7):e013877. Epub 2020 Apr 1. PMID: 32233756
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Increasing vegetables in the diet may have benefits for the prevention of subclinical atherosclerosis in older adult women

Pubmed Data : J Am Heart Assoc. 2018 Apr 4 ;7(8). Epub 2018 Apr 4. PMID: 29618474
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenic

Independent of their plaque-regressive effects, statins promote coronary atheroma calcification

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Apr 7 ;65(13):1273-82. PMID: 25835438
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Statin Drugs

Infant formula feeding is associated with atheroslerotic lesions in infants who died from sudden infant death syndrome

Pubmed Data : Pathol Res Pract. 2004;200(5):403-10. PMID: 15239349
Study Type : Human Study

Infant formula is associated with microvascular dysfunction relative to breastfeeding

Pubmed Data : Vasc Med. 2009 May;14(2):137-42. PMID: 19366820
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Infant Formula

Influenza A vaccination containing adjuvant causes cardiac autonomic dysfunction and inflammation which may transiently increase the risk of cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : J Intern Med. 2010 Sep 1. Epub 2010 Sep 1. PMID: 20964738
Study Type : Human Study

Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2012 Aug 6 ;11:54. Epub 2012 Aug 6. PMID: 22866937
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FiberOats
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents

Intake of trans-fatty acids contributes to a sizeable proportion of coronary heart disease events in Iran

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;61(8):1004-10. Epub 2007 Jan 31. PMID: 17268422
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Hydrogenated Oil Trans Fatty Acids
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Intakes of plant-based foods, particularly fruit intake, were associated with reduced mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes among Japanese men and women

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2009 Jul;102(2):285-92. Epub 2009 Jan 13. PMID: 19138438
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fruit: AllVegetables: All
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Isoflavone supplementation reduces C-reactive protein and reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with ischaemic stroke

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J. 2008 Nov;29(22):2800-7. Epub 2008 Sep 23. PMID: 18812325
Study Type : Human Study

Kiwifruit consumption reduces platelet aggregation and blood triglycerides in human subjects

Pubmed Data : J Altern Complement Med. 2010 May;16(5):555-60. PMID: 15370099
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Kiwifruit
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-PlateletPlatelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Krill oil reduces symptoms of chronic inflammation and arthritis

Pubmed Data : Am J Gastroenterol. 2005 Dec;100(12):2674-80. PMID: 17353582
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Krill
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory Agents

L-arginine protects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2009 May;204(1):73-8. Epub 2008 Sep 4. PMID: 18849028
Study Type : Human Study

L-arginine supplementation improves postsurgical endothelial function, insulin restance and inflammation in nondiabetic patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Metabolism. 2009 Sep;58(9):1270-6. Epub 2009 Jul 9. PMID: 19592054
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Arginine

L-Arginine, the substrate for NO synthesis, may be an alternative treatment for premature atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2007 Apr 4;116(3):300-8. Epub 2006 Jul 24. PMID: 16860889
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Arginine

L-carnitine is a useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of congestive heart failure in combination with traditional pharmacological therapy

Pubmed Data : Jpn Circ J. 1992 Jan;56(1):86-94. PMID: 1538579
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Carnitine
Additional Keywords : Drug-Plant-Vitamin Synergies

l-Carnitine supplement reduces serum CRP, a marker of systemic inflammation, and plasma fibrinogen, an inflammation-related coagulation factor, in hemodialysis patients

Pubmed Data : Ren Fail. 2010;32(9):1109-14. PMID: 20863217
Study Type : Human Study

Lactobacillus plantarum 299v probiotic supplementation in men with stable coronary artery disease suppresses systemic inflammation

Pubmed Data : Sci Rep. 2021 Feb 17 ;11(1):3972. Epub 2021 Feb 17. PMID: 33597583
Study Type : Human Study

Lactofermented Annurca apple puree as a functional food indicated for the control of plasma lipid and oxidative amine levels

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Jan 9 ;11(1). Epub 2019 Jan 9. PMID: 30634393
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsHypolipidemic

Lavender aromatherapy has cortisol-lowering and relaxation effects and may have beneficial acute effects on coronary circulation

Pubmed Data : Int J Cardiol. 2008 Sep 26;129(2):193-7. Epub 2007 Aug 8. PMID: 17689755
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Lavender
Therapeutic Actions : Aromatherapy

Legume consumption reduces the risk of coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2001 Nov 26;161(21):2573-8. PMID: 11718588
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beans: All
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Lemon balm decreases HbA1c and improves beta-cell activity, blood pressure, and HDL-C in type 2 diabetic individuals

Pubmed Data : Phytother Res. 2019 Mar ;33(3):651-659. Epub 2018 Dec 10. PMID: 30548118
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Lemon Balm
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidant EffectsHypoglycemic Agents
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Light to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower atherosclerotic burden of aortic plaque

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2011 Aug 16. Epub 2011 Aug 16. PMID: 21885050
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Alcohol
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Long- and short-term association of low-grade systemic inflammation with cardiovascular mortality

Pubmed Data : Clin Res Cardiol. 2019 Jul 1. Epub 2019 Jul 1. PMID: 31263995
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Long-term ascorbic acid administration reverses endothelial vasomotor dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 1999 Jun 29;99(25):3234-40. PMID: 10385496
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin C
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsNitric Oxide Enhancer

Long-term coenzyme Q10 therapy has significant therapeutic effects in patients with advanced heart failture

Pubmed Data : Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2005 Aug;117(15-16):558-60. PMID: 3836876
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Diseases : Heart Failure

Long-term CoQ10 treatment of patients with chronic heart failure is safe, improves symptoms, and reduces major adverse cardiovascular events

Pubmed Data : JACC Heart Fail. 2014 Dec ;2(6):641-9. Epub 2014 Oct 1. PMID: 25282031
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10
Diseases : Heart Failure
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Long-term effects of honey on cardiovascular parameters and anthropometric measurements of postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Complement Ther Med. 2018 Dec ;41:154-160. Epub 2018 Sep 5. PMID: 30477832
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Tualang Honey
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsCardioprotective

Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and mortality due to cardiovascular disease and cerebrovascular disease in Shenyang, China

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2011 ;6(6):e20827. Epub 2011 Jun 10. PMID: 21695220
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution is associated with ischaemic heart disease and stroke mortality

Pubmed Data : Int J Epidemiol. 2019 Jul 10. Epub 2019 Jul 10. PMID: 31289812
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Long-term fine particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular mortality in the general population

Pubmed Data : J Cardiol. 2019 Dec 13. Epub 2019 Dec 13. PMID: 31839460
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Long-term flaxseed lignan-enriched complex supplementation in older adults has an ability to favourably modulate systolic blood pressure

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Nov-Dec;36(8):646-653. Epub 2017 Sep 18. PMID: 28922068
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FlaxseedLignans
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Lovastatin decreases coenzyme Q levels associated with compromised cardiac function in humans

Pubmed Data : Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Nov;87(22):8931-4. PMID: 2247468
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : LovastatinStatin Drugs
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Lovastatin enhances the susceptibility of LDL cholesterol to oxidation

Pubmed Data : FEBS Lett. 1997 Jun 30;410(2-3):254-8. PMID: 9237640
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : LovastatinStatin Drugs
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : CardiotoxicOxidant

Low adiponectin levels are associated with symptomatic atherosclerotic peripheral arterial disease

Pubmed Data : Clin Chem Lab Med. 2006;44(7):830-3. PMID: 16776628
Study Type : Human Study

Low free testosterone is associated with heart failure mortality in older men

Pubmed Data : Eur J Heart Fail. 2011 May;13(5):482-8. Epub 2011 Feb 20. PMID: 21339189
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Testosterone
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Low serum docosahexaenoic acid was associated with progression of coronary atherosclerosis in statin-treated patients with Diabetes mellitus.

Pubmed Data : Cardiovasc Diabetol. 2014 ;13:13. Epub 2014 Jan 13. PMID: 24410834
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : AtherosclerosisDiabetes
Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Pravastatin Statin Drugs

Low serum magnesium concentrations predict cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jun 12. Epub 2011 Jun 12. PMID: 21703623
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Magnesium
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Low serum vitamin B12 levels are independently associated with abnormal lipid profiles in healthy young Saudi women

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2020 Aug 10 ;12(8). Epub 2020 Aug 10. PMID: 32785129
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin B-12
Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Low total bilirubin is associated with the higher prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke in men and with the higher prevalence of stroke in women among a Japanese health screening population

Pubmed Data : Heart Vessels. 2011 Mar 11. Epub 2011 Mar 11. PMID: 21394643
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Diseases that are Linked

Low vitamin D is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes

Pubmed Data : Diabet Med. 2016 Nov 18. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PMID: 27862247
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : MorbidityRisk Factors

Low vitamin D levels are independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2008 Jun 23;168(12):1340-9. PMID: 18574092
Study Type : Human Study

Low-calorie cranberry juice can improve several risk factors of CVD in adults, including circulating TGs, CRP, and glucose, insulin resistance, and diastolic BP

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2015 Jun ;145(6):1185-93. Epub 2015 Apr 22. PMID: 25904733
Study Type : Human Study

lower 25OHD is associated with higher BP especially in those who use BP medications

Pubmed Data : J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Nov 16. Epub 2016 Aug 16. PMID: 27865973
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Lower serum magnesium levels are associated with coronary artery calcification in Mexican subjects

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2016 ;15(1):22. Epub 2016 Mar 1. PMID: 26931571
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Magnesium
Additional Keywords : Risk FactorsRisk Reduction

Lower vitamin D levels are associated with all-cause mortality and even more pronounced with cardiovascular mortality

Pubmed Data : Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Nov;71(5):666-72. Epub 2009 Feb 18. PMID: 19226272
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Lowering blood cadmium levels could be beneficial in reducing the incident of cardiovascular disease and related mortality

Pubmed Data : Environ Health Perspect. 2015 Oct 30. Epub 2015 Oct 30. PMID: 26517380
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors
Problem Substances : Cadmium

Lutein exerts anti-inflammatory effects in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2017 May 6 ;262:87-93. Epub 2017 May 6. PMID: 28527371
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Lutein
Additional Keywords : Dose Response

Macadamia nut consumption modulates favourably risk factors for coronary artery disease in hypercholesterolemic subjects

Pubmed Data : Lipids. 2007 Jun;42(6):583-7. Epub 2007 Apr 17. PMID: 17437143
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Macadamia

Magnesium may have a favorable effect on coronary artery calcification

Pubmed Data : Hemodial Int. 2009 Oct;13(4):453-9. Epub 2009 May 12. PMID: 19469885
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Magnesium

Magnesium supplementation is beneficial to patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 2003 Mar 1;91(5):517-21. PMID: 12615252
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Magnesium

Magnesium supplementation is beneficial to patients with symptomatic heart failure

Pubmed Data : J Periodontal Res. 1996 Aug;31(6):408-13. PMID: 16470086
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Magnesium

Mass market multivitamin and antioxidant supplement use is associated with increased mortality among male smokers

Pubmed Data : Am J Epidemiol. 2000 Jul 15;152(2):149-62. PMID: 10909952
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Mass Market Vitamins

Mean follow-up for atrial flutter and atrial fibrillation relapse in elderly undergoing cardioconversion is 7.7 months and associated with increased mortality

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J. 2006 Apr;27(7):854-60. Epub 2006 Feb 2. PMID: 16455671
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Anti Therapeutic Actions : Cardioconversion: Atrial Fibrillation

Measles and mumps, especially in case of both infections, were associated with lower risks of mortality from atherosclerotic CVD

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2015 Aug ;241(2):682-6. Epub 2015 Jun 18. PMID: 26122188
Study Type : Human Study

Meditation reduced norepinephrine blood levels, quality of life and cardiopulmonary function in elderly patients with optimally treated congestive heart failure

Pubmed Data : Food Chem Toxicol. 2009 Oct 9. PMID: 15992231
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Meditation

Mediterranean diet and antihypertensive drug use

Pubmed Data : J Hypertens. 2021 Jan 25. Epub 2021 Jan 25. PMID: 33496530
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive Oil
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents
Additional Keywords : Medication ReductionRisk Reduction

Mediterranean diets supplemented with olive oil or nuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors

Pubmed Data : Ann Intern Med. 2006 Jul 4;145(1):1-11. PMID: 16818923
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : NutsOlive
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Mediterranean, vegetarian and vegan diets as practical outtakes of EAS and ACC/AHA recommendations for lowering lipid profile

Pubmed Data : Acta Biochim Pol. 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5. PMID: 33544561
Study Type : Human Study

Medium-term administration of onion peel extract an improvement in flow-mediated dilation and circulating endothelial progenitor cells

Pubmed Data : Nutrition. 2015 Sep ;31(9):1131-5. PMID: 26233871
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : OnionPolyphenolsQuercetin
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants
Additional Keywords : PhytotherapyPlant Extracts

Melatonin administration lowers biomarkers of oxidative stress and cardio-metabolic risk in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Clin Nutr. 2017 Dec 12. Epub 2017 Dec 12. PMID: 29275919
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Melatonin

Minimal fish intake is associated with lower risk of major CVD and mortality among patients with prior CVD

Pubmed Data : JAMA Intern Med. 2021 Mar 8. Epub 2021 Mar 8. PMID: 33683310
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fish
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by statin contributes to endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2010 Jun ;10(2):130-8. PMID: 20383667
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : SimvastatinStatin Drugs

Mixed nut consumption may improve cardiovascular disease risk factors in overweight and obese adults

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Jun 29 ;11(7). Epub 2019 Jun 29. PMID: 31261928
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Moderate chocolate consumption was associated with a lower rate of heart failure hospitalization or death

Pubmed Data : Am Heart J. 2017 Jan ;183:18-23. Epub 2016 Oct 6. PMID: 27979037
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Chocolate

Moderate coffee consumption lowers the likelihood of developing left ventricular systolic dysfunction in post-acute coronary syndrome normotensive patients

Pubmed Data : J Med Food. 2009 Feb;12(1):29-36. PMID: 19298193
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coffee

Moderate consumption of chocolate might be associated with a lower risk of heart failure in male physicians

Pubmed Data : Eur J Heart Fail. 2014 Dec ;16(12):1372-6. Epub 2014 Oct 14. PMID: 25311633
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Flavonoids
Diseases : Heart Failure
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Moderate consumption of green tea decreased the risk of total cancer and respiratory disease mortality in women

Pubmed Data : Eur J Epidemiol. 2019 Aug 7. Epub 2019 Aug 7. PMID: 31392470
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Green Tea
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Moderate red wine consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an elderly Mediterranean population at a high cardiovascular risk

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2015 Apr ;113 Suppl 2:S121-30. PMID: 26148915
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Red Wine Extract
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Modest fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of total cardiovascular disease, consistent with cardiac mortality benefits

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Dec;88(6):1618-25. PMID: 19064523
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fish
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

More frequent statin use is associated with accelerated coronary artery calcification, and in a subpopulation aortic calcification, in T2DM patients with advanced atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Diabetes Care. 2012 Aug 8. Epub 2012 Aug 8. PMID: 22875226
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Statin Drugs
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Mortality risk and fine particulate air pollution in a large, representative cohort of U.S. adults

Pubmed Data : Environ Health Perspect. 2019 07 ;127(7):77007. Epub 2019 Jul 24. PMID: 31339350
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Mothers who do not breastfeed their infants seem to be at increased risk of vascular changes associated with future cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jan;115(1):41-8. PMID: 20027032
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Mud therapy may have therapeutic value in patients with osteoarthrosis and concomitant hypertensive disease and ischemic heart disease

Pubmed Data : Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2009 Sep-Oct(5):11-3. PMID: 19882889
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Mud therapy

MUFAs or n-6 PUFAs had beneficial effects on serum lipid biomarkers, blood pressure, and E-selectin offering a potential public health strategy for CVD risk reduction

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May 27. Epub 2015 May 27. PMID: 26016869
Study Type : Human Study

Multiple functions of policosanol in elderly patients with dyslipidemia

Pubmed Data : J Int Med Res. 2020 Jul ;48(7):300060520936082. PMID: 32703038
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Policosanol
Pharmacological Actions : Hypolipidemic

Music therapy decreased congestive heart failure in elderly patients by reducing plasma cytokine and catecholamine levels

Pubmed Data : Int Heart J. 2009 Jan;50(1):95-110. PMID: 19246850
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Music
Pharmacological Actions : Interleukin-6 Downregulation

Napping and an extended duration of recovery sleep has a positive effect on alertness and immune cells after acute sleep restriction

Pubmed Data : Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Jan ;25(1):16-24. Epub 2010 Aug 8. PMID: 20699115
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Napping

Nattokinase supplementation is an effective way to manage the progression of atherosclerosis and potentially may be a better alternative to statins

Pubmed Data : Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2017 Jul 11 ;97(26):2038-2042. PMID: 28763875
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nattokinase
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenicHypolipidemic

Niacin treatment improves endothelial dysfunction in patients with Coronary Artery Disease

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2009 May;204(1):216-21. Epub 2008 Aug 12. PMID: 18822413
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Niacin

Nigella sativa oil supplement has cardiovascular protective effects in patients with T2DM

Pubmed Data : Phytother Res. 2020 Jun 8. Epub 2020 Jun 8. PMID: 32510754
Study Type : Human Study

NSAIDs are associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and death

Pubmed Data : Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2009 Feb;85(2):190-7. Epub 2008 Nov 5. PMID: 18987620
Study Type : Human Study

NSAIDs are frequently used in patients with heart failure and are associated with increased risk of death and cardiovascular morbidity

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jan 26;169(2):141-9. PMID: 19171810
Study Type : Human Study

Nut consumption decreases the risk of sudden cardiac death

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jun 24;162(12):1382-7. PMID: 12076237
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Nut consumption may play a role in reducing the risk of atrial fibrillation and possibly heart failure

Pubmed Data : Heart. 2018 Apr 16. Epub 2018 Apr 16. PMID: 29661934
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Nut consumption was associated with decreased overall and cardiovascular disease mortality

Pubmed Data : JAMA Intern Med. 2015 May ;175(5):755-66. PMID: 25730101
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : NutsPeanut
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Nut consumption was independently associated with a decreased risk of overall and vascular-disease mortality

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2015 Sep 25. Epub 2015 Sep 25. PMID: 26607701
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Nut intake was inversely associated with all-cause mortality and certain types of cause-specific mortality

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Jul 2 ;11(7). Epub 2019 Jul 2. PMID: 31269682
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Nut/tree nut consumption was associated with a decreased prevalence of selected risk factors for cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Nutr. 2011 Dec ;30(6):502-10. PMID: 22331685
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Nuts
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective

Oat bran in cardiovascular risk control in mental disorder

Pubmed Data : Rev Bras Enferm. 2020 ;73 Suppl 1:e20190277. Epub 2020 Jun 1. PMID: 32490954
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Oat Bran
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsCardioprotective

Olive oil consumption appears to reduce the risk of non-fatal heart attack in coronary disease

Pubmed Data : Int J Epidemiol. 2002 Apr;31(2):474-80. PMID: 11980820
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Olive oil consumption reduces the susceptibility of LDL to oxidation, supporting the hypothesis that daily virgin olive oil intake protects cardiovascular health

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2007 Dec;98(6):1243-50. Epub 2007 Jul 9. PMID: 17617938
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Olive

Omega 3 fatty acids improve the cardiovascular risk profile of subjects with metabolic syndrome, including markers of inflammation and auto-immunity

Pubmed Data : Acta Cardiol. 2009 Jun;64(3):321-7. PMID: 19593941
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Omega-3 Fatty Acids

Omega-3 fatty acid reduce the total mortality and sudden death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction

Pubmed Data : Eur J Heart Fail. 2005 Aug;7(5):904-9. PMID: 16087142
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation reduces total mortality and sudden death in patients who have already had a heart attack

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2002 Apr 23;105(16):1897-903. PMID: 11997274
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D supplementation results in a substantial reduction in coronary calcium scores and slowed plaque growth

Pubmed Data : Am J Ther. 2009 Jul-Aug;16(4):326-32. PMID: 19092644
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Disease Regression

Omega-3 in modest doses reduces cardiac deaths, and in high doses reduces nonfatal cardiovascular events. Red yeast rice reduces adverse cardiac events to a similar degree as the statins

Pubmed Data : Chin Med J (Engl). 2008 Aug 20;121(16):1588-94. PMID: 18982874
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Natural Substances Versus Drugs

One Hass avocado per day has beneficial effects beyond their fatty acid profile on decreasing LDL‐C and other emerging CVD risk factors

Pubmed Data : J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan 7 ;4(1):e001355. Epub 2015 Jan 7. PMID: 25567051
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Avocado
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents

One week of daily beetroot juice significantly improves submaximal aerobic endurance and blood pressure in elderly HFpEF patients

Pubmed Data : JACC Heart Fail. 2016 Feb 2. Epub 2016 Feb 2. PMID: 26874390
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beet
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive Agents

Oophorectomy adversely affect healthy postmenopausal women by accelerating loss of bone mineral density (BMD) and the rate of increase in carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT)

Pubmed Data : Fertil Steril. 2014 Apr ;101(4):1117-22. Epub 2014 Feb 14. PMID: 24530156
Study Type : Human Study

Oral supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and inflammation markers in patients with chronic kidney disease in hemodialysis

Pubmed Data : Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2020 Jan 14. Epub 2020 Jan 14. PMID: 31935118
Study Type : Human Study

Oral vitamin C restores coronary microcirculatory function and impaired coronary flow velocity reserve against oxidative stress in smokers

Pubmed Data : Am Heart J. 2004 Aug;148(2):300-5. PMID: 15309000
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin C

Orange juice consumption is associated with better diet quality, improved nutrient adequacy and a decreased risk for obesity

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2012 Dec 12 ;11:107. Epub 2012 Dec 12. PMID: 23234248
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Orange
Additional Keywords : Anti-Obesity AgentsRisk Reduction

Orange pomace fiber lowers postprandial glycemic and insulinemic responses in men with increased cardiometabolic risk

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2016 06 ;146(6):1197-203. Epub 2016 May 11. PMID: 27170728
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Fiber
Pharmacological Actions : Hypoglycemic Agents
Problem Substances : Insulin

Ozone therapy might be beneficial in terms of activating antioxidant system and merit further therapeutic potential to conventional heart failure treatment

Pubmed Data : Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2017 Oct ;17(4):426-433. PMID: 28097518
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Ozone Therapy
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants

Pantothenic acid preparations improve the condition of patients with coronary heart disease and stable angina

Pubmed Data : Vopr Pitan. 1987 Mar-Apr;(2):15-7. PMID: 3590676
Study Type : Human Study

Paracetamol was associated with increased mortality, especially cardiovascular

Pubmed Data : Brain Behav. 2015 Aug ;5(8):e00338. Epub 2015 May 29. PMID: 26357585
Study Type : Human Study

Patients taking aspirin plus ibuprofen have an increased risk of all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : Lancet. 2003 Feb 15;361(9357):573-4. PMID: 12598144
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Patients who have low CRP levels after statin therapy have better clinical outcomes than those with higher CRP levels, regardless of the resultant level of LDL cholesterol

Pubmed Data : N Engl J Med. 2005 Jan 6;352(1):20-8. PMID: 15635109
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic Agents

Patients with chronic heart failure have increased intestinal permeability and an augmented bacterial biofilm contributing to both chronic inflammation and malnutrition

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007 Oct 16;50(16):1561-9. Epub 2007 Oct 1. PMID: 17936155
Study Type : Human Study

Patients with cogestive heart failure have high rates of thiamine deficiency

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006 Jan 17;47(2):354-61. PMID: 16412860
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Thiamine (B-1)
Diseases : Heart Failure

Patients with hypertension treated with calcium channel blockers have increased incident of heart failure

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 2010 Jul 15;106(2):228-35. PMID: 20599008
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Calcium Channel Antagonists
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

People who preferentially consume high amounts of quercetin-containing foods have a reduced risk of thrombosis and potential CVD risk

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2006 Sep ;96(3):482-8. PMID: 16925853
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FlavonoidsOnionQuercetinSoup
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-thromboticCardioprotective

Perilla frutescens leaf powder intake may be an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases

Pubmed Data : Molecules. 2020 Apr 30 ;25(9). Epub 2020 Apr 30. PMID: 32365849
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Alpha Linolenic AcidPerilla
Pharmacological Actions : Antihypertensive AgentsCardioprotective

Periodontal disease is associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 23. Epub 2011 Jul 23. PMID: 21831372
Study Type : Human Study

Physical inactivity increases endostatin and osteopontin in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Heart Vessels. 2015 Dec 11. Epub 2015 Dec 11. PMID: 26661073
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Phytosterol plasma concentrations are associated with a lower riat of coronary heart disease in the Spanish

Pubmed Data : J Lipid Res. 2009 Sep 28. Epub 2009 Sep 28. PMID: 19786566
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Beta SitosterolPhytosterols
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Pine bark extract significantly prolonged the lag time of LDL oxidation

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2015 Jan ;35(1):56-64. Epub 2014 Oct 20. PMID: 25458248
Study Type : Human Study, In Vitro Study

Additional Links

Substances : Pine Bark Extract
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Plasma homocysteine predicts progression of atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2005 Jul;181(1):159-65. PMID: 15939068
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Diseases that are Linked

Plasma vitamin C, a biomarker reflecting fruit and vegetable intake, was inversely associated with the risk of heart failure

Pubmed Data : Am Heart J. 2011 Aug ;162(2):246-53. Epub 2011 Jul 7. PMID: 21835284
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure

Pomegranate juice has potent antiatherogenic effects in healthy humans and in atherosclerotic mice that may be attributable to its antioxidative properties

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 May ;71(5):1062-76. PMID: 10799367
Study Type : Animal Study, Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Pomegranate
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsCardiotonic Agents

Pomegranate juice intake had a significant beneficial effect, lowering systolic blood pressure and improving the lipid profiles of hemodialysis patients

Pubmed Data : Nutr J. 2014 ;13:18. Epub 2014 Mar 4. PMID: 24593225
Study Type : Human Study

Potential adverse cardiovascular effects from excessive endurance exercise

Pubmed Data : Mayo Clin Proc. 2012 Jun ;87(6):587-95. PMID: 22677079
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Preoperative use of aspirin plus clopidogrel is associated with an increased risk of infection after coronary artery bypass surgery

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2009 Apr 27;169(8):788-96. PMID: 19398691
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aspirin Clopidogrel

Prevention of cardiovascular events with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and the mechanism involved

Pubmed Data : J Atheroscler Thromb. 2019 Oct 3. Epub 2019 Oct 3. PMID: 31582621
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Pharmacological Actions : CardioprotectiveHypolipidemic

Prevention of coronary and stroke events with atorvastatin in hypertensive patients who have average or lower-than-average cholesterol concentrations, in the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial–Lipid Lowering Arm (ASCOT-LLA)

Pubmed Data : Drugs. 2004 ;64 Suppl 2:43-60. PMID: 15765890
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : AtorvastatinStatin Drugs

Prior aspirin use predicts worse outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 1999 Apr 15;83(8):1147-51. PMID: 10215274
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Aspirin
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Probiotic fermented goat’s milk decreases oxidative stress-mediated atherogenicity in human subjects

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2003 Aug;90(2):449-56. PMID: 12908907
Study Type : Human Study

Probiotics supplementation had beneficial effects on glycemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk

Pubmed Data : Food Funct. 2018 Sep 19 ;9(9):4763-4770. PMID: 30113051
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Probiotics
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsAntioxidants

Processed red meat consumption is associated with an increased risk of heart failure in men

Pubmed Data : Circ Heart Fail. 2014 Jul ;7(4):552-7. Epub 2014 Jun 12. PMID: 24926039
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Meat

Proton-pump inhibitors seem to be associated with increased risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes

Pubmed Data : Ann Intern Med. 2010 Sep 21;153(6):378-86. PMID: 20855802
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Puerarin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-kappaB signalling

Pubmed Data : Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010 Aug ;107(2):637-42. Epub 2010 Mar 22. PMID: 20346059
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Isoflavones
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Inflammatory AgentsNF-kappaB Inhibitor
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Puerarin effectively improves clinical symptoms and vascular endothelial function and reduces the levels of inflammatory factors in patients with CAD

Pubmed Data : Med Sci Monit. 2019 Jan 14 ;25:402-408. Epub 2019 Jan 14. PMID: 30636768
Study Type : Human Study

Pycnogenol and Centella Asiatica reduce the progression of arterial plaques and the progression to clinical stages

Pubmed Data : Minerva Cardioangiol. 2015 Oct 27. Epub 2015 Oct 27. PMID: 26505327
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsProphylactic Agents

Pycnogenol improves diabetes control, lowers cardiovascular disease risk factors, and reduces the need for hypertension medication in type diabetic patients

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2008 May;28(5):315-20. PMID: 19083426
Study Type : Human Study

Pycnogenol improves endothelial function in patients with coronary artery disease by reducing oxidative stress

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J. 2012 Jul ;33(13):1589-97. Epub 2012 Jan 11. PMID: 22240497
Study Type : Human Study

Pycnogenol® in combination with coenzymeQ10 may be of value in heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Panminerva Med. 2010 Jun ;52(2 Suppl 1):21-5. PMID: 20657530
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10

Quercetin reduced systolic blood pressure and plasma oxidised LDL concentrations in overweight subjects with a high-cardiovascular risk phenotype

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2009 Oct;102(7):1065-74. Epub 2009 Apr 30. PMID: 19402938
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Quercetin
Pharmacological Actions : AntioxidantsHypolipidemic

Raja yoga meditation lowered serum cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in post-menopausal women thus reducing the risk of coronary artery disease in them

Pubmed Data : Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 2008 Oct-Dec;52(4):420-4. PMID: 19585761
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Meditation Yoga

Raloxifene is associated with double the risk of coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Climacteric. 2009;12 Suppl 1:108-11. PMID: 19811253
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Drug: Tamoxifen
Problem Substances : Raloxifene
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Red and processed meat intakes were associated with modest increases in total mortality, cancer mortality, and cardiovascular disease mortality

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2009 Mar 23 ;169(6):562-71. PMID: 19307518
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Meat

Red grape seed extract may have potential beneficial effects in preventing oxidative stress and atherosclerosis in patients with mild hyperlipidemia

Pubmed Data : Sao Paulo Med J. 2016 May 13 ;134(3):234-9. PMID: 27191247
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Grape Seed Extract
Pharmacological Actions : Anti-atherogenicAntioxidants
Additional Keywords : Phytotherapy

Red meat consumption was significantly positively associated with ferritin concentrations and myocardial infarction risk

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2018 Jan 1 ;107(1):113-119. PMID: 29381787
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors
Problem Substances : Meat

Red sage (S. mitiorrhiza) and kudzu (Pueraria lobata) improve vascular function and structure in coronary patients

Pubmed Data : J Altern Complement Med. 2009 Apr;15(4):415-21. PMID: 19388864
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : KudzuRed Sage

Red Yeast Rice rapidly reduces C-reactive protein levels, within 24 hours, and blood lipid profiles within 2 weeks

Pubmed Data : Clin Chim Acta. 2005 Feb;352(1-2):217-24. PMID: 15653117
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Red Yeast Rice

Red Yeast Rice safely and profoundly reduces cardiovascular events and total mortality

Pubmed Data : Am J Cardiol. 2008 Jun 15;101(12):1689-93. Epub 2008 Apr 11. PMID: 18549841
Study Type : Human Study

Red Yeast Rice significantly lowers all-cause mortality in type 2 diabetics with coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2010 Aug;30(8):1874-6. PMID: 17312447
Study Type : Human Study

Reduced levels of plasma selenium are associated with increased inflammation and cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Exp Gerontol. 2020 Dec 26 ;145:111219. Epub 2020 Dec 26. PMID: 33373712
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Reduced serum zinc ion concentration is associated with coronary heart disease

Pubmed Data : Biol Trace Elem Res. 2021 Jan 2. Epub 2021 Jan 2. PMID: 33387273
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Zinc
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Factors

Regular aspirin-use preceding the onset of primary intracerebral hemorrhage is an independent predictor for death

Pubmed Data : Stroke. 2006 Jan;37(1):129-33. Epub 2005 Dec 1. PMID: 16322483
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Cardiac Mortality

Regular consumption of chocolate bars containing plant sterols and cocoa flavanols as part of a low-fat diet may support cardiovascular health by lowering cholesterol and improving blood pressure

Pubmed Data : J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):134-42. PMID: 18356327
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Regular consumption of dark chocolate is associated with low serum concentrations of C-reactive protein

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2008 Oct;138(10):1939-45. PMID: 18806104
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links


Regular endurance exercise combined with daily curcumin ingestion may reduce LV afterload to a greater extent than monotherapy with either intervention alone in postmenopausal women

Pubmed Data : Am J Hypertens. 2012 Jun ;25(6):651-6. Epub 2012 Mar 15. PMID: 22421908
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Curcumin
Therapeutic Actions : Exercise

Regular green tea consumption is associated with significantly reduced risk of death from all-cause, CVD and cancer among Chinese adults

Pubmed Data : Eur J Epidemiol. 2016 Jul 2. Epub 2016 Jul 2. PMID: 27372743
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Green Tea
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Regular intake of functional yogurt NY-YP901 may be consequently related to improve metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : Eur J Clin Nutr. 2011 Nov ;65(11):1250-5. Epub 2011 Jun 22. PMID: 21697819
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Yoghurt
Pharmacological Actions : Anticholesteremic AgentsHypolipidemic
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Regular peanut consumption improves indices of cardiovascular disease risk in healthy adults

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Nutr. 2003 Apr;22(2):133-41. PMID: 12672709
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Peanut

regular yogurt consumption was related to lower mortality risk among women

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 Jan 22. Epub 2020 Jan 22. PMID: 31968071
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Yoghurt
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Relationship between urinary bisphenol a levels and cardiovascular diseases in the U.S. adult population

Pubmed Data : Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2020 Feb 10 ;192:110300. Epub 2020 Feb 10. PMID: 32058166
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk
Problem Substances : Bisphenol A
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Repeated sauna treatment improves impaired vascular endothelial function in the setting of coronary risk factors

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2001 Oct ;38(4):1083-8. PMID: 11583886
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Thermal Therapy: Far-Infrared
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Repeated sauna treatment improves vascular endothelial and cardiac function in patients with chronic heart failure

Pubmed Data : J Am Coll Cardiol. 2002 Mar 6;39(5):754-9. PMID: 11869837
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Diseases : Heart Failure
Therapeutic Actions : Sauna Therapy

Repeated sauna treatment improves ventricular arrhythmias in patients with chronic heart failure

Pubmed Data : Circ J. 2004 Dec;68(12):1146-51. PMID: 15564698
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Sauna Therapy

Results indicate a positive impact of regular chokeberry juice consumption on BP and lipid status in pharmacologically untreated hypertensive subjects

Pubmed Data : J Med Food. 2015 May 14. Epub 2015 May 14. PMID: 25973889
Study Type : Human Study

Rice bran extract reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women

Pubmed Data : J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2016 ;62(5):295-302. PMID: 27928115
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Rice Bran
Diseases : Atherosclerosis
Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts

Rooibos tea improves the lipid profile and redox status of adults at risk of developing cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Jan 7 ;133(1):46-52. Epub 2010 Sep 15. PMID: 20833235
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : FlavonoidsPolyphenolsRooibos
Pharmacological Actions : Antioxidants
Additional Keywords : PhytotherapyPlant Extracts

Rosiglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction in the elderly

Pubmed Data : Diab Vasc Dis Res. 2009 Apr;6(2):87-93. PMID: 20368198
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Rosiglitazone (trade name Avandia)
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Rosiglitazone use is associated with an increased risk of stroke, heart failure, and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : JAMA. 2010 Jul 28;304(4):411-8. Epub 2010 Jun 28. PMID: 20584880
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Problem Substances : Rosiglitazone (trade name Avandia)
Adverse Pharmacological Actions : Cardiotoxic

Sauna baths improve blood lipid profiles in women

Pubmed Data : Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2010;23(2):167-74. PMID: 20682487
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Therapeutic Actions : Sauna Therapy

Seasonally dependent early developmental mechanisms might play a role in increasing lifetime disease risk

Pubmed Data : J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2015 Jun 2. Epub 2015 Jun 2. PMID: 26041386
Study Type : Human Study

Sedentariness is associated with several cardiovascular risk factors and may be responsible for the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2016 ;11(8):e0160959. Epub 2016 Aug 17. PMID: 27532610
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Sedentary lifestyle and high-carbohydrate intake were associated with low-grade chronic inflammation and cardiovascular risk

Pubmed Data : Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet. 2016 Jul ;38(7):317-24. Epub 2016 Jul 15. PMID: 27420776
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Selenium and coenzyme Q10 supplementation had long lasting effects that reduced cardiovascular mortality

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2018 ;13(4):e0193120. Epub 2018 Apr 11. PMID: 29641571
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Coenzyme Q10Selenium
Pharmacological Actions : Cardioprotective
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Serum oxidized low-density lipoprotein is inversely correlated to telomerase activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of haemodialysis patients

Pubmed Data : Nephrology (Carlton). 2006 Dec;11(6):506-9. PMID: 17199788
Study Type : Human Study

Serum vitamin C concentration is low in peripheral arterial disease and is associated with inflammation and severity of atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2001 Apr 10;103(14):1863-8. PMID: 11294804
Study Type : Human Study

Serum vitamin D levels have an independent, inverse association with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality

Pubmed Data : J Am Geriatr Soc. 2009 Sep;57(9):1595-603. Epub 2009 Jun 22. PMID: 19549021
Study Type : Human Study

Serum vitamin D levels was negatively associated with carotid atherosclerosis

Pubmed Data : Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016 Aug 18:1-7. Epub 2016 Aug 18. PMID: 27537342
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : Increased Risk

Serum vitamin D might be protective against cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : N Am J Med Sci. 2016 Jul ;8(7):284-90. PMID: 27583236
Study Type : Human Study

Additional Links

Substances : Vitamin D
Additional Keywords : Risk Reduction

Sesame seed paste reduces cardiovascular disease risk factors in type 2 diabetics


Short- and long-term black tea consumption reverses endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary artery disease

Pubmed Data : Circulation. 2001 Jul 10;104(2):151-6. PMID: 11447078
Study Type : Human Study

Short-term cocoa consumption signficantly reduces blood cholesterol

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2010 Jul;92(1):218-25. Epub 2010 May 26. PMID: 20504978
Study Type : Human Study

Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and daily atherosclerotic heart disease mortality in a cool climate

Pubmed Data : Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 Aug ;26(23):23603-23614. Epub 2019 Jun 15. PMID: 31203548
Study Type : Human Study

Simple lifestyle modifications such as adding raisins to a diet or increasing walking have distinct beneficial effects on cardiovascular disease risk

Pubmed Data : Lipids Health Dis. 2008 Apr 16 ;7:14. Epub 2008 Apr 16. PMID: 18416823
Study Type : Human Study
Additional Links

Six months of vitamin D supplementation significantly improves ejection fraction in elderly patients with heart failure and vitamin D deficiency

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Aug ;24(8):861-8. Epub 2014 Mar 5. PMID: 24787908
Study Type : Human Study

Smokers who adhere to physical activity guidelines show a significant reduction in mortality

Pubmed Data : J Phys Act Health. 2019 Aug 5:1-7. Epub 2019 Aug 5. PMID: 31387083
Study Type : Human Study

Snacking on whole almonds for 6 weeks improves endothelial function and lowers LDL cholesterol

Pubmed Data : Am J Clin Nutr. 2020 May 15. Epub 2020 May 15. PMID: 32412597
Study Type : Human Study

Soy food consumption is associated with lower risk of coronary heart disease in Chinese women

Pubmed Data : J Nutr. 2003 Sep;133(9):2874-8. PMID: 12949380
Study Type : Human Study

Soy isoflavones improve cardiovascular disease risk markers in women during the early menopause

Pubmed Data : Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Apr 10. Epub 2018 Apr 10. PMID: 29739677
Study Type : Human Study

Spirulina supplementation has favorable effect on select cardiovascular and metabolic biomarkers in humans

Pubmed Data : Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes. 2018 ;11:729-742. Epub 2018 Nov 14. PMID: 30532573
Study Type : Human Study

Statin discontinuation was associated with a 33% increased risk of admission for cardiovascular event in 75-year-old primary prevention patients

Pubmed Data : Eur Heart J. 2019 Jul 30. Epub 2019 Jul 30. PMID: 31362307
Study Type : Human Study

Statin drug use is associated with lower bilirubin levels, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2011 Jul 23. Epub 2011 Jul 23. PMID: 21840000
Study Type : Human Study

Statin therapy decreases myocardial (heart) function

Pubmed Data : Clin Cardiol. 2009 Dec;32(12):684-9. PMID: 20027659
Study Type : Human Stud

Statin use is associated with an increased prevalence and extent of coronary plaques possessing calcium

Pubmed Data : Atherosclerosis. 2012 Aug 24. Epub 2012 Aug 24. PMID: 22981406
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Objective: The effect of statins on coronary artery plaque features beyond stenosis severity is not known. Coronary CT angiography (CCTA) is a novel non-invasive method that permits direct visualization of coronary atherosclerotic features, including plaque composition. We evaluated the association of statin use to coronary plaque composition type in patients without known coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing CCTA.

Methods: From consecutive individuals, we identified 6673 individuals (2413 on statin therapy and 4260 not on statin therapy) with no known CAD and available statin use status. We studied the relationship between statin use and the presence and extent of specific plaque composition types, which was graded as non-calcified (NCP), mixed (MP), or calcified (CP) plaque.

Results: The mean age was 59 ± 11 (55% male). Compared to the individuals not taking statins, those taking statins had higher prevalence of risk factors and obstructive CAD. In multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increased the presence of MP [odds ratio (OR) 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.27-1.68), p < 0.001] and CP (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.36-1.74, p < 0.001), but not NCP (OR 1.11, 95% CI 0.96-1.29, p = 0.1). Further, in multivariable analyses, statin use was associated with increasing numbers of coronary segments possessing MP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.34-1.73, p < 0.001) and CP (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.36-1.70, p < 0.001), but not coronary segments with NCP (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.94-1.25, p = 0.2).

Conclusion: Statin use is associated with an increased prevalence and extent of coronary plaques possessing calcium. The longitudinal effect of statins on coronary plaque composition warrants further investigation.


Statins increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes

Pubmed Data : Lancet. 2010 Feb 27;375(9716):735-42. Epub 2010 Feb 16. PMID: 20167359
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Trials of statin therapy have had conflicting findings on the risk of development of diabetes mellitus in patients given statins. We aimed to establish by a meta-analysis of published and unpublished data whether any relation exists between statin use and development of diabetes.

Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1994 to 2009, for randomised controlled endpoint trials of statins. We included only trials with more than 1000 patients, with identical follow-up in both groups and duration of more than 1 year. We excluded trials of patients with organ transplants or who needed haemodialysis. We used the I(2) statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for incident diabetes with random-effect meta-analysis.

Findings: We identified 13 statin trials with 91 140 participants, of whom 4278 (2226 assigned statins and 2052 assigned control treatment) developed diabetes during a mean of 4 years. Statin therapy was associated with a 9% increased risk for incident diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.09; 95% CI 1.02-1.17), with little heterogeneity (I(2)=11%) between trials. Meta-regression showed that risk of development of diabetes with statins was highest in trials with older participants, but neither baseline body-mass index nor change in LDL-cholesterol concentrations accounted for residual variation in risk. Treatment of 255 (95% CI 150-852) patients with statins for 4 years resulted in one extra case of diabetes.

Interpretation: Statin therapy is associated with a slightly increased risk of development of diabetes, but the risk is low both in absolute terms and when compared with the reduction in coronary events. Clinical practice in patients with moderate or high cardiovascular risk or existing cardiovascular disease should not change.

Funding: None.


Strawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2016 Aug ;116(4):639-47. PMID: 27464461
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that the intake of freeze-dried strawberry powder (FDSP) improves select markers of cardiovascular health in adults with cardiovascular risk factors; however, whether these improvements can be observed in at-risk adolescents is unknown. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study enrolled twenty-five overweight or obese males, aged 14-18 years, to consume 50 g of a FDSP or a control powder, daily for 1 week. Before and after each test period, measures of microvascular function, plasma nitrate/nitrite, platelet reactivity and blood lipids were collected at baseline and acutely 1 h after FDSP intake. Acute plasma nitrate/nitrite levels increased 1 h after consuming the FDSP during Study Visit 1 before daily FDSP intake (P<0·001) and during Study Visit 2 after 1 week of FDSP intake (P<0·001) compared with control powder intake. As a group, fasting nitrate/nitrite levels did not significantly change after 1 week of control or FDSP intake. However, for those individuals where fasting nitrate levels increased after short-term FDSP intake compared with controls, an increase in reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) was observed (P=0·014), whereas RHI was unchanged in those individuals who did not have a significant increase in nitrate (P=0·396). Taken together, these data support the concept that strawberries can provide vascular health benefits to heavier adolescent males.

Keywords: CV cardiovascular; FDSP freeze-dried strawberry powder; NO nitric oxide; Nitrate; Obese adolescents; PAT peripheral arterial tonometry; Peripheral arterial tonometry; RHI reactive hyperaemia index; Strawberry powder; fRHI Framingham reactive hyperaemia index.


Strawberries decrease atherosclerotic markers in subjects with metabolic syndrome

Pubmed Data : Nutr Res. 2010 Jul;30(7):462-9. PMID: 20797478
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Strawberries have been reported to be potent antioxidants and reduce cardiovascular risk factors, such as elevated blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, and inflammation in limited studies. We hypothesized that freeze-dried strawberry supplementation will improve blood pressure, impaired glucose, dyslipidemia, or circulating adhesion molecules in obese subjects with metabolic syndrome, thereby lowering cardiovascular risk factors in these subjects. Twenty-seven subjects with metabolic syndrome (2 males and 25 females; body mass index, 37.5 +/- 2.15 kg/m(2); age, 47.0 +/- 3.0 years [means +/- SE]) consumed 4 cups of freeze-dried strawberry beverage (50 g freeze-dried strawberries approximately 3 cups fresh strawberries) or equivalent amounts of fluids (controls, 4 cups of water) daily for 8 weeks in a randomized controlled trial. Anthropometrics and blood pressure measurements, assessment of dietary intakes, and fasting blood draws were conducted at screen and 8 weeks of the study. Strawberry supplementation significantly decreased total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (5.8 +/- 0.2 to 5.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/L and 3.5 +/- 0.2 to 3.1 +/- 0.1 mmol/L, respectively [means +/- SE], P < .05) and small low-density lipoprotein particles using nuclear magnetic resonance-determined lipoprotein subclass profile vs controls at 8 weeks (794.6 +/- 94.0 to 681.8 +/- 86.0 nmol/L [means +/- SE], P < .05). Strawberry supplementation further decreased circulating levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 vs controls at 8 weeks (272.7 +/- 17.4 to 223.0 +/- 14.0 ng/mL [means +/- SE], P < .05). Serum glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference were not affected. Thus, short-term freeze-dried strawberry supplementation improved selected atherosclerotic risk factors, including dyslipidemia and circulating adhesion molecules in subjects with metabolic syndrome, and these results need confirmation in future trials.


Sucrose consumption higher than 15% is associated with an increased risk of a coronary events

Pubmed Data : Br J Nutr. 2016 Oct 24:1-10. Epub 2016 Aug 24. PMID: 27774913
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Previous studies have suggested that a high intake of sugar-sweetened beverages is positively associated with the risk of a coronary event. However, a few studies have examined the association between sucrose (the most common extrinsic sugar in Sweden) and incident coronary events. The objective of the present study was to examine the associations between sucrose intake and coronary event risk and to determine whether these associations are specific to certain subgroups of the population (i.e. according to physical activity, obesity status, educational level, alcohol consumption, smoking habits, intake of fat and intake of fruits and vegetables). We performed a prospective analysis on 26 190 individuals (62 % women) free from diabetes and without a history of CVD from the Swedish population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort. Over an average of 17 years of follow-up (457 131 person-years), 2493 incident cases of coronary events were identified. Sucrose intake was obtained from an interview-based diet history method, including 7-d records of prepared meals and cold beverages and a 168-item diet questionnaire covering other foods. Participants who consumed >15 % of their energy intake (E%) from sucrose showed a 37 (95 % CI 13, 66) % increased risk of a coronary event compared with the lowest sucrose consumers (<5 E%) after adjusting for potential confounders. The association was not modified by the selected lifestyle factors. The results indicated that sucrose consumption higher than 15 E% (5 % of this population) is associated with an increased risk of a coronary event.

Keywords: E% percentage of energy; HR hazard ratio; MDC Malmö Diet and Cancer; CVD; Effect modification; Risk factors; Sucrose.


Sugar-sweetened beverages and cardiometabolic health: An update of the evidence

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Aug 8 ;11(8). Epub 2019 Aug 8. PMID: 31398911
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have little nutritional value and a robust body of evidence has linked the intake of SSBs to weight gain and risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and some cancers. Metabolic Syndrome (MetSyn) is a clustering of risk factors that precedes the development of T2D and CVD; however, evidence linking SSBs to MetSyn is not clear. To make informed recommendations about SSBs, new evidence needs to be considered against existing literature. This review provides an update on the evidence linking SSBs and cardiometabolic outcomes including MetSyn. Findings from prospective cohort studies support a strong positive association between SSBs and weight gain and risk of T2D and coronary heart disease (CHD), independent of adiposity. Associations with MetSyn are less consistent, and there appears to be a sex difference with stroke with greater risk in women. Findings from short-term trials on metabolic risk factors provide mechanistic support for associations with T2D and CHD. Conclusive evidence from cohort studies and trials on risk factors support an etiologic role of SSB in relation to weight gain and risk of T2D and CHD. Continued efforts to reduce intake of SSB should be encouraged to improve the cardiometabolic health of individuals and populations.

Keywords: cardiometabolic risk; cardiovascular disease; metabolic syndrome; sugar-sweetened beverages; type 2 diabetes; weight gain.


Sugary beverages are associated with cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients

Pubmed Data : J Diabetes Metab Disord. 2019 Jun ;18(1):7-13. Epub 2019 Jan 31. PMID: 31275869
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Purpose: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) containing high amount of added sugars have increased over the last decades. Due to increased risk of cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, we designed a study to assess the association between SSBs and metabolic syndrome, a collection of cardiovascular risk factors, in these patients.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on T2DM adults (N = 157). Participants had no serious disease or insulin treatment. SSBs records were obtained from a validated food frequency questionnaire. Metabolic syndrome status was extracted from biochemical and anthropometric measurements. Subjects risk factors were compared based on their usual SSBs consumption.

Results: About half of participants consumed at least one serving of SSBs (Mean intake: 145.6 mL/d) on a weekly basis. Men and women had a similar SSBs pattern. Demographic and anthropometric characteristics were identical in both groups. Higher SSBs intake (≥ 0.5 vs <0.5 serving/ week) was positively associated with hypertension (OR: 3.48, 95% CI: 1.31, 9.26) and obesity (OR: 4.61, 95% CI: 1.31, 16.25). After adjustment for confounders, a higher risk of the metabolic syndrome was observed in those with higher SSBs intake (OR: 4.23, 95% CI: 1.42, 12.62).

Conclusion: Drinking SSBs, even in low amounts, could potentially elevate the risk of cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients. Reduction of sugary drinks would be an urgent recommendation.

Keywords: Cardiovascular risk; Diabetes; Metabolic syndrome; Sugar-sweetened beverages.

Conflict of interest statement

Conflicts of interestThe authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


Supplemental ubiquinol has therapeutic effects in advanced congestive heart failure patients

Pubmed Data : Biofactors. 2008;32(1-4):119-28. PMID: 19096107
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Patients with CHF, NYHA class IV, often fail to achieve adequate plasma CoQ10 levels on supplemental ubiquinone at dosages up to 900 mg/day. These patients often have plasma total CoQ10 levels of less than 2.5 microg/ml and have limited clinical improvement. It is postulated that the intestinal edema in these critically ill patients may impair CoQ10 absorption. We identified seven patients with advanced CHF (mean EF 22%) with sub-therapeutic plasma CoQ10 levels with mean level of 1.6 microg/ml on an average dose of 450 mg of ubiquinone daily (150-600 mg/day). All seven of these patients were changed to an average of 580 mg/day of ubiquinol (450-900 mg/day) with follow-up plasma CoQ10 levels, clinical status, and EF measurements by echocardiography. Mean plasma CoQ10 levels increased from 1.6 microg/ml (0.9-2.0 microg/ml) up to 6.5 microg/ml (2.6-9.3 microg/ml). Mean EF improved from 22% (10-35%) up to 39% (10-60%) and clinical improvement has been remarkable with NYHA class improving from a mean of IV to a mean of II (I to III). Ubiquinol has dramatically improved absorption in patients with severe heart failure and the improvement in plasma CoQ10 levels is correlated with both clinical improvement and improvement in measurement of left ventricular function.


Supplementation of magnesium and choline is more effective than either magnesium or choline alone to improve coagulation in subjects with T2DM

Pubmed Data : Biol Trace Elem Res. 2019 Aug 5. Epub 2019 Aug 5. PMID: 31385202
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Metabolic failure is associated with dyslipidemia and coagulation which can result in a higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The aim of this study was to assess the effects of choline and magnesium co-supplementation on lipid profile and coagulation parameters in patients with T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, supplements of choline bitartrate (1000 mg), magnesium oxide (500 mg), choline plus magnesium, or placebo were administered for 2 months to 96 diabetic participants of both sexes aged 30-60 years. Anthropometric characteristics, dietary intake, physical activity, serum lipids, and coagulation markers were measured in all subjects. Significant differences were observed in plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels in the magnesium and choline-magnesium groups (p < 0.05). Moreover, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) levels increased in choline-magnesium groups (p < 0.001). When adjusted for potential confounders, a significant decrease in PAI-1 (p = 0.03) and a marginally significant increase in tPA (p = 0.054) were found in the choline-magnesium group compared with the other groups. Compared with baseline values, there were significant differences in serum magnesium, HDL, and triglycerides (TG) following choline-magnesium co-supplementation (p < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences in serum magnesium, HDL, and TG among the groups (p > 0.05). Overall, concurrent supplementation of magnesium and choline is more effective than either magnesium or choline alone to improve coagulation in subjects with T2DM.

Keywords: Choline; Coagulation; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Magnesium.


Supplementation with bergamot juice extract significantly reduced plasma lipids and improved the lipoprotein profile

Pubmed Data : Front Pharmacol. 2015 ;6:299. Epub 2016 Jan 6. PMID: 26779019
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Some patients experience statin-induced side effects or prefer nutraceutical approaches for the treatment of dyslipidemia. This has led to a search for alternative therapeutic approaches for dyslipidemia management. In recent studies Citrus bergamia (known as Bergamot) juice was able to reduce serum levels of lipids. Such benefit may be attributed to high amounts of flavonoids contained in Bergamot fruit juice (neoeriocitrin, neohesperidin, naringin). The aim of the present study was to fully investigate the effects of a Bergamot extract on cardio-metabolic parameters, including plasma lipids, atherogenic lipoproteins and subclinical atherosclerosis.

Methods: Eighty subjects (42 men and 38 women, mean age: 55 ± 13 years) with moderate hypercholesterolemia [e.g., with plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations between 160 and 190 mg/dl (between 4.1 and 4.9 mmol/l)] were included. A Bergamot-derived extract (Bergavit R(®)) was given at a fixed dose daily (150 mg of flavonoids, with 16% of neoeriocitrin, 47% of neohesperidin and 37% of naringin) for 6 months. Lipoprotein subfractions were assessed by gel electrophoresis. With this methodology low density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses are distributed as seven bands (LDL-1 and -2 as large LDL, and LDL-3 to -7 as atherogenic small, dense LDL). Subclinical atherosclerosis was assessed by carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) using B-mode ultrasound.

Results: After 6 months, Bergavit R(®) reduced total cholesterol (from 6.6 ± 0.4 to 5.8 ± 1.1 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), triglycerides (from 1.8 ± 0.6 to 1.5 ± 0.9 mmol/l, p = 0.0020), and LDL-cholesterol (from 4.6 ± 0.2 to 3.7 ± 1.0 mmol/l, p < 0.0001), while HDL- cholesterol increased (from 1.3 ± 0.2 to 1.4 ± 0.4 mmol/l, p < 0.0007). In addition, a significant increase in LDL-1 (from 41.2 ± 0.2 to 49.6 ± 0.2%, p < 0.0001) was accompanied by decreased small, dense LDL-3, -4, and 5 particles (from 14.5 ± 0.1 to 9.0 ± 0.1% p < 0.0001; 3.2 ± 0.1 to 1.5 ± 0.1% p = 0.0053; 0.3 ± 0.0% to 0.1 ± 0.0% p = 0.0133, respectively). cIMT also decreased from 1.2 ± 0.4 to 0.9 ± 0.1 mm (p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This is the first study investigating the effects of Bergamot flavonoids supplementation on cardio-metabolic risk in dyslipidemic subjects. Bergavit R(®) (Bergamot juice extract) supplementation significantly reduced plasma lipids and improved the lipoprotein profile. cIMT was also reduced significantly over a relatively short time frame of 6 months.

Keywords: Bergamot; LDL subclasses; cardiovascular risk; carotid IMT; hypercholesterolemia.


Supplementation with folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin may reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration

Pubmed Data : Arch Intern Med. 2009 Feb 23;169(4):335-41. PMID: 19237716
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Observational epidemiologic studies indicate a direct association between homocysteine concentration in the blood and the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but randomized trial data to examine the effect of therapy to lower homocysteine levels in AMD are lacking. Our objective was to examine the incidence of AMD in a trial of combined folic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6)), and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12)) therapy.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial including 5442 female health care professionals 40 years or older with preexisting cardiovascular disease or 3 or more cardiovascular disease risk factors. A total of 5205 of these women did not have a diagnosis of AMD at baseline and were included in this analysis. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a combination of folic acid (2.5 mg/d), pyridoxine hydrochloride (50 mg/d), and cyanocobalamin (1 mg/d) or placebo. Our main outcome measures included total AMD, defined as a self-report documented by medical record evidence of an initial diagnosis after randomization, and visually significant AMD, defined as confirmed incident AMD with visual acuity of 20/30 or worse attributable to this condition.

Results: After an average of 7.3 years of treatment and follow-up, there were 55 cases of AMD in the combination treatment group and 82 in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.66; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.93 [P = .02]). For visually significant AMD, there were 26 cases in the combination treatment group and 44 in the placebo group (relative risk, 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.95 [P = .03]).

Conclusions: These randomized trial data from a large cohort of women at high risk of cardiovascular disease indicate that daily supplementation with folic acid, pyridoxine, and cyanocobalamin may reduce the risk of AMD.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00000161.


Supplementation with hydroxytyrosol and punicalagin improves early atherosclerosis markers

Pubmed Data : Nutrients. 2019 Mar 16 ;11(3). Epub 2019 Mar 16. PMID: 30884808
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Hydroxytyrosol (HT) and Punicalagin (PC) exert cardioprotective and anti-atherosclerotic effects. This study evaluates the effect of oral supplementation with HT and PC (SAx) on early atherosclerosis markers in middle-aged, seemingly healthy adults. A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was performed for 20 weeks. There were two treatment sequences (Placebo/SAx, n = 41; SAx/Placebo, n = 43) for which the intervention periods (Placebo and SAx) were 8 weeks long, followed by a 4-week wash out period. The supplement was composed of 9.9 mg of HT and 195 mg of PC, and the placebo was composed of maltodextrin. SAx increased endothelial function (Flow-mediated dilatation [FMD]: 2.36%; p < 0.001) in the endothelial dysfunction subgroup compared to the placebo (2.36 ± 3.9 vs. 0.76 ± 3.5%, p < 0.05). SAx also reduced oxLDL by -28.74 ng/mL (p < 0.05) in subjects with higher levels of oxLDL, which was an improvement compared with the placebo (-28.74 ± 40.2 vs. 25.64 ± 93.8 ng/mL, p < 0.001). The prehypertension and hypertension subgroups exhibited decreased systolic (-15.75 ± 9.9 mmHg; p < 0.001) and diastolic (-6.36 ± 8.7 mmHg; p < 0.001) blood pressure after SAx consumption. Moreover, the systolic prehypertension and hypertension subgroups presented significant differences in systolic blood pressure compared to the placebo (-15.75 ± 9.9 vs. -2.67 ± 12.0 mmHg, p < 0.05). In conclusion, the supplement exerted anti-atherosclerotic effects by improving endothelial function, blood pressure, and levels of circulating oxLDL, especially for persons in whom these parameters were altered.

Keywords: atherosclerosis; endothelial dysfunction; hydroxytyrosol; hypertension; oxidative stress; prehypertension; punicalagin.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.


Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 could reduce cardiovascular mortality 10 years after supplementation

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2015 ;10(12):e0141641. Epub 2015 Dec 1. PMID: 26624886
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Selenium and coenzyme Q10 are important antioxidants in the body. As the intake of selenium is low in Europe, and the endogenous production of coenzyme Q10 decreases as age increases, an intervention trial using selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years was performed. As previously reported, the intervention was accompanied by reduced cardiovascular mortality. The objective of the present study was to analyze cardiovascular mortality for up to 10 years after intervention, to evaluate if mortality differed in subgroups differentiated by gender, diabetes, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and functional class.

Methods: Four-hundred forty-three healthy elderly individuals were included from a rural municipality in Sweden. All cardiovascular mortality was registered, and no participant was lost to the follow-up. Based on death certificates and autopsy results mortality was registered.

Findings: Significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality could be seen in those on selenium and coenzyme Q10 intervention. A multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated a reduced cardiovascular mortality risk in the active treatment group (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.36-0.74; P = 0.0003). The reduced mortality could be seen to persist during the 10-year period. Subgroup analysis showed positive effects in both genders. An equally positive risk reduction could be seen in those with ischemic heart disease (HR: 0.51; 95%CI 0.27-0.97; P = 0.04), but also in the different functional classes.

Conclusions: In a 10-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants given four years of intervention with selenium and coenzyme Q10, significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality was observed. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanism explaining the persistency remains to be elucidated. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. This does not alter the authors’ adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials.


Supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 reduces cardiovascular mortality in elderly with low selenium status

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2016 ;11(7):e0157541. Epub 2016 Jul 1. PMID: 27367855
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Selenium is needed by all living cells in order to ensure the optimal function of several enzyme systems. However, the selenium content in the soil in Europe is generally low. Previous reports indicate that a dietary supplement of selenium could reduce cardiovascular disease but mainly in populations in low selenium areas. The objective of this secondary analysis of a previous randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial from our group was to determine whether the effects on cardiovascular mortality of supplementation with a fixed dose of selenium and coenzyme Q10 combined during a four-year intervention were dependent on the basal level of selenium.

Methods: In 668 healthy elderly individuals from a municipality in Sweden, serum selenium concentration was measured. Of these, 219 individuals received daily supplementation with selenium (200 μg Se as selenized yeast) and coenzyme Q10 (200 mg) combined for four years. The remaining participants (n = 449) received either placebo (n = 222) or no treatment (n = 227). All cardiovascular mortality was registered. No participant was lost during a median follow-up of 5.2 years. Based on death certificates and autopsy results, all mortality was registered.

Findings: The mean serum selenium concentration among participants at baseline was low, 67.1 μg/L. Based on the distribution of selenium concentration at baseline, the supplemented group was divided into three groups; <65 μg/L, 65-85 μg/L, and >85 μg/L (45 and 90 percentiles) and the remaining participants were distributed accordingly. Among the non-treated participants, lower cardiovascular mortality was found in the high selenium group as compared with the low selenium group (13.0% vs. 24.1%; P = 0.04). In the group with the lowest selenium basal concentration, those receiving placebo or no supplementation had a mortality of 24.1%, while mortality was 12.1% in the group receiving the active substance, which was an absolute risk reduction of 12%. In the middle selenium concentration group a mortality of 14.0% in the non-treated group, and 6.0% in the actively treated group could be demonstrated; thus, there was an absolute risk reduction of 8.0%. In the group with a serum concentration of >85 μg/L, a cardiovascular mortality of 17.5% in the non-treated group, and 13.0% in the actively treated group was observed. No significant risk reduction by supplementation could thus be found in this group.

Conclusions: In this evaluation of healthy elderly Swedish municipality members, two important results could be reported. Firstly, a low mean serum selenium concentration, 67 μg/L, was found among the participants, and the cardiovascular mortality was higher in the subgroup with the lower selenium concentrations <65 μg/L in comparison with those having a selenium concentration >85 μg/L. Secondly, supplementation was cardio-protective in those with a low selenium concentration, ≤85 at inclusion. In those with serum selenium>85 μg/L and no apparent deficiency, there was no effect of supplementation. This is a small study, but it presents interesting data, and more research on the impact of lower selenium intake than recommended is therefore warranted.

Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01443780.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.


Synbiotic supplementation in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease had beneficial effects on insulin metabolism and HDL-cholesterol levels

Pubmed Data : Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes. 2017 Jan ;125(1):21-27. Epub 2016 May 24. PMID: 27219886
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Objective: The current study was performed to evaluate the effects of synbiotic administration on metabolic profiles in overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). Methods: This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was done among 60 diabetic patients with CHD. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: group A (n=30) received synbiotic supplements containing 3 probiotic bacteria spices Lactobacillus acidophilus 2×109Lactobacillus casei 2×109Bifidobacterium bifidum 2×109 CFU/g plus 800 mg inulin and group B (n=30) received placebo for 12 weeks. Fasting blood samples were taken at baseline and after 12-week intervention to determine metabolic profiles. Results: After 12 weeks of intervention, patients who consumed synbiotic capsule had significantly decreased fasting plasma glucose (- 19.6±74.6 vs.+19.2±66.9 mg/dL, P=0.03), serum insulin concentrations (- 0.7±5.1 vs.+3.3±6.3 µIU/mL, P=0.01), the homeostasis model of assessment-estimated b cell function (- 3.4±19.5 vs.+11.5±21.0, P=0.006) and increased the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (+ 0.002±0.01 vs.-0.01±0.02, P=0.03) compared with the placebo. In addition, changes in HLDL-cholesterol levels (+ 1.8±5.7 vs.-2.2±6.0 mg/dL, P=0.01) in supplemented patients were significantly different from those of patients in the placebo group. Conclusion: Synbiotic supplementation for 12 weeks among diabetic patients with CHD had beneficial effects on markers of insulin metabolism and HDL-cholesterol levels.


TA-65 improved key markers of cardiovascular disease risk

Pubmed Data : Curr Pharm Des. 2018 ;24(17):1905-1911. PMID: 29546832
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Telomerase Activator 65 (TA-65), a compound extracted from Astragalus membranaceus has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for extending lifespan. Scarce information exists on the effects of TA-65 on parameters of metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Methods: We recruited 40 patients with MetS to determine the effects of TA-65 on dyslipidemias, hypertension, and oxidative stress in this at-risk population. The study was a double-blind, randomized crossover design in which patients were allocated to consume either 16 mg daily of a TA-65 supplement or a placebo for 12 weeks. Following a 3-week washout, participants were allocated to the alternate treatment for an additional 12 weeks. Anthropometric and biological markers were measured at the end of each treatment. Plasma lipids, glucose, CReactive Protein (CRP), liver enzymes, and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured using a Cobas c-111. Inflammatory cytokines were measured by Luminex technology and markers of oxidative stress by the use of spectroscopy.

Results: Compared to the placebo period, HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) was higher while body mass index, waist circumference, and the LDL/HDL ratio were lower (p < 0.05) during TA-65 treatment. In addition, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was lower during the TA-65 period (p < 0.05). Positive correlations were observed in changes between the placebo and the TA-65 periods in HDL-C and CRP (r = -0.511, p < 0.01), alanine aminotransferase (r = -0.61, p < 0.001) and TNF-α (r = -0.550, p < 0.001) suggesting that the favorable changes observed in HDL were associated with decreases in inflammation.

Conclusion: TA-65 improved key markers of cardiovascular disease risk, which were also associated with reductions in inflammation.

Keywords: Astragalus membranaceus; HDL; Telomerase activator; inflammation; metabolic syndrome; oxidative stress..


Tai Chi can prevent cardiovascular disease and improve cardiopulmonary function of adults with obesity aged 50 years and older

Pubmed Data : Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Oct ;98(42):e17509. PMID: 31626108
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

To research the possible role of Tai Chi in preventing cardiovascular disease and improving cardiopulmonary function in adults with obesity aged 50 years and older.Between 2007 and 2012, 120 adults with obesity, aged 50 years and older, were divided into a Tai Chi group and a control group, with 60 participants in each group. The 2 groups were evaluated for weight, waist circumference, hip circumference, blood pressure (BP), body mass index, and incidence of chronic disease during follow-up monitoring.Two- and 6-year follow-up showed that the average BP in the Tai Chi group along with either the systolic or diastolic pressure decreased significantly compared to those in the control group (P < .001). Waist and hip circumference, weight, and body mass index in the Tai Chi group were significantly reduced compared to those in the control group (P < .001). The cardiopulmonary function of the control group and the Tai Chi group changed, with the cardiac index significantly higher in the Tai Chi group than in the control group (P < .05). The Tai Chi group had significantly higher levels of lung function, including vital capacity, maximal oxygen uptake, and total expiratory time, than the control group. The total incidence of complications and mortality in the Tai Chi group were much lower than those in the control group (P < .001). The incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease in the Tai Chi group (16.67%) was lower than that in the control group (38.33%).Tai Chi is not only a suitable exercise for elderly people with obesity, but it can also help to regulate BP, improve heart and lung function in these individuals, as well as reduce the incidence of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases, helping to improve their quality of life.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have no conflicts of interests to disclose.


Tai Chi training is safe and produces significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life in patients with symptomatic heart failure

Pubmed Data : Postgrad Med J. 2007 Nov;83(985):717-21. PMID: 17989272
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Objective: To study the effect of Tai Chi on exercise tolerance in patients with moderate heart failure.

Design: Randomised parallel group study balanced for baseline variables.

Setting: Cardiology Department, Royal Hallamshire Hospital.

Patients and methods: 52 patients (42 men, mean age (68.9 years), range (46-90 years), and 10 women, mean age (70.0 years), range (58-82)) with chronic heart failure (New York Heart Association symptom class II-III) were studied. Patients were randomised to Tai Chi Chuan twice a week for 16 weeks or to standard medical care without exercise rehabilitation.

Main outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was the change in the distance walked in the shuttle walk test. Secondary outcome measures were changes in symptom scores and quality of life indices.

Results: Objective measures of exercise tolerance did not improve significantly with Tai Chi, but patients having Tai Chi exercise had an improvement in symptom scores of heart failure measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (comparison of deltas, -2.4 control vs -14.9; p = 0.01), and depression scores measured by the SCL-90-R questionnaire (-2.9 vs -6.8; p = 0.12) compared with those patients in the control group.

Conclusion: In patients with chronic heart failure, 16 weeks of Tai Chi training was safe, with no adverse exercise related problems. It was enjoyed by all taking part and led to significant improvements in symptoms and quality of life.

Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: None.


Tanshinone IIA elevates serum soluble klotho levels and decreases cardiovascular events in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

Pubmed Data : Ann Palliat Med. 2020 Jul ;9(4):2131-2140. Epub 2020 Jul 20. PMID: 32692226
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common adverse event of maintenance hemodialysis (MHD), in which serum soluble klotho plays a vital role. Tanshinone IIA (tan) has been used to protect the cardiovascular system for hundreds of years. This study was performed to investigate the effects of tan on klotho level and cardiovascular events of MHD patients.

Methods: Totally 112 patients were enrolled in this study, and their demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics were collected at admission. Serum soluble klotho, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and abdominal aorta calcification (AAC) level were measured to determine their relationship. Seventy-one patients were given sodium tan sulfonate injection according to their willingness, while 41 patients were not given any specific treatment. The endpoint events were recorded, including cardiovascular mortality, nonfatal cardiovascular events, and all-cause mortality.

Results: All patients were divided into two groups on whether the level of serum soluble klotho was more than medium or not. CIMT and AAC grade showed significant differences between 2 groups (group of low level of klotho versus group of high level of klotho, CIMT: 1.03±0.22 vs. 0.85±0.20 mm, P<0.001; AAC grade: 5.04±3.93 vs. 1.69±2.30 points, P<0.001). All patients were followed up for at least one year. The results revealed that using tan improved the level of serum soluble klotho (490.23±153.97 pg/mL after using tan versus 444.49±143.32 pg/mL before using tan, P=0.042). Kaplan-Meier curves showed that cardiovascular event-free survival was significantly higher in patients given tan (P=0.040) compared with patients not given tan.

Conclusions: Tan effectively increases the level of serum soluble klotho and further reduces the incidence of cardiovascular events in MHD patients.

Keywords: Tanshinone IIA; cardiovascular events; klotho; maintenance hemodialysis (MHD).


Tart cherry juice can lower the levels of systolic blood pressure and LDL cholesterol

Pubmed Data : Food Funct. 2018 Jun 20 ;9(6):3185-3194. PMID: 29862410
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Hypertension and dyslipidemia are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Common treatments for high blood pressure (BP) and dyslipidemia include medications, but there is question as to whether natural sources may be adequate to reduce CVD risk factors. We examined the effects of tart cherry juice on lipid profiles, BP, glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in older adults. In this randomized-controlled clinical trial, 17 men and 20 women between the ages of 65-80 years were randomly assigned to consume 480 ml of tart cherry juice or control drink daily for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for energy and sugar content. Outcome variables were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks of tart cherry juice or control drink. Systolic BP and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL) exhibited treatment × time interaction effects. At the end of the study, participants in the tart cherry group had lower levels of LDL cholesterol (difference of -20.6 with P = 0.001) and total cholesterol (difference of -19.11 with P = 0.01), and higher levels of glucose (difference of 7.94 with P = 0.001), triglycerides (difference of 6.66 with P = 0.01) and BMI (difference of 1.06 with P = 0.02) than in the control group. Neither tart cherry juice nor control significantly altered body weight, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, diastolic BP, insulin and HOMA-IR. Our findings show that tart cherry juice can lower the levels of systolic BP and LDL cholesterol. However, larger and longer follow-up studies are needed to further assess cardio-protective effects of tart cherry juice.


Temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations

Pubmed Data : PLoS One. 2016 ;11(8):e0161368. Epub 2016 Aug 22. PMID: 27548258
Study Type : Human Study

Abstract

Both lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and elevated homocysteine concentrations are potential risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). A recent analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reported an inverse association of serum 25(OH)D with homocysteine, however, the longitudinal relationship has yet to be investigated. We hypothesized and examined whether a temporal increase in 25(OH)D concentrations is paralleled by a reduction in the risk for elevated homocysteine. We analyzed data of 4475 participants with repeated assessments of serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations who enrolled in a preventive health program that encourages vitamin D supplementation and monitors serum 25(OH)D and homocysteine concentrations. We defined elevated homocysteine as concentrations greater than 13 micromoles per liter. Logistic regression was applied to assess the association of temporal changes in serum 25(OH)D with the risk of elevated homocysteine. We observed an inverse gradient whereby greater increases in 25(OH)D concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of elevated homocysteine. Relative to those without temporal increases in 25(OH)D, participants who showed improvements in their serum 25(OH)D concentrations of “<25”, “25-50”, “50-75”, and “≥75” nanomoles per liter at follow up were 0.92 (95% confidence interval: 0.62-1.37), 0.52 (0.33-0.80), 0.34 (0.20-0.58), and 0.32 (0.19-0.54) times as likely to have elevated homocysteine, respectively. These observations suggest that temporal improvements in vitamin D status reduce serum homocysteine concentrations, and therefore may potentially contribute to the primary prevention of CVD.<